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National symbols of India

TitleNational SymbolNotes
National flag Tiranga A horizontal rectangular  tricolour with equally sized deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom. In the center is a navy blue wheel with twenty-four spokes, known as the Ashoka Chakra. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag designed by Pingali Venkayya.
National emblem National Emblem of India An adaptation of Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath was adopted as the National Emblem of India on 24 January 1950, the day India became a republic. Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: "Satyameva Jayate" (English: Truth Alone Triumphs), a quote taken from Mundaka Upanishad, the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas.
National calendarSaka calendarSaka calendar was introduced by the Calendar Committee in 1957. Usage officially started at 1 Chaitra 1879 Saka Era, or 22 March 1957.
National anthemJana Gana ManaJana Gana Mana by Rabindranath Tagore was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950.
National songVande MataramThe first two verses of Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was adopted as the National song of India in 1950. "Vande Mataram" was sung during the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress by Rabindranath Tagore.
Oath of allegianceNational PledgeIt was written in Telugu by Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao in 1962. Central Advisory Board on Education directed that the pledge to be sung in Schools and that this practice to be introduced by 26 January 1965.
National fruitMangoMango (Mangifera indica) originated in India and the country is home to more than 100 varieties of the fruit.
National riverGangaGanga is the longest river of India with the most heavily populated river basin in the world. The river is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth.
National treeIndian banyanIndian banyan (Ficus bengalensis) root themselves to form new trees and grow over large areas. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.
National animalRoyal Bengal tigerThe Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is found only in the Indian subcontinent and can be found in most regions of the country.
National aquatic animalGanges river dolphinThe river dolphin is a freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and the Indus river dolphin. The Ganges river dolphin has a sturdy, yet flexible, body with large flippers and a low triangular dorsal fin. It weighs up to 150kg. The calves are chocolate brown at birth and become grayish brown in adulthood with a smooth and hairless skin. Females are larger than males. It can only survive in pure and fresh water.
National birdIndian peacockIndian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is designated as the national bird of India. A bird indigenous to the subcontinent, the peacock represents the unity of vivid colours and finds references in Indian culture. On February 1, 1963, The Government of India had decided to have the Peacock as the national bird of India.
The question of selecting a national bird has been under consideration since the Tokyo conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation held in May 1960. This matter was taken up by the Indian Board for Wild Life and the State Governments were also asked to give their views. Some of the other birds considered for the honour were the Great Indian Bustard, the Sarus crane, the "Garuda" and the Swan (Hamsa), the strongest contender being the Great Indian Bustard.
National currencyIndian rupeeIndian rupee (ISO code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant "र" (ra) and the Latin letter "R" was adopted in 2010. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam born 10 October 1978 in Kallakurichi, Tamil Nadu is the designer of the Indian rupee sign. His design was selected from among five short listed symbols. According to Udaya Kumar the design is based on the Indian tricolour.
National microbeLactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricusLactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus has been announced as the National Microbe for India by Jayanthi Natarajan, India's Minister of State for Environment and Forests on October 18, 2012 during the International Conference on "Biodiversity Conservation and Education for Sustainable Development - Learning to Conserve Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing World" held at Hyderabad during CoP-11. The microbe was selected by children who had visited the Science Express Biodiversity Special, a train which has been visiting various stations across the country.
National reptileKing cobraKing cobra is the national reptile of India. It is considered a sacred animal in Indian culture. They are found in almost every part of the Indian subcontinent.
National heritage animalIndian elephantIndian elephant is the national heritage animal of India since October 22, 2010. India's Environment Ministry has declared the elephant a National Heritage Animal in order to increase protective measures for the country's nearly 29,000 elephants."Declaring it the National Heritage Animal will give it due place as emblem of ecological sensitivity. It will also mark recognition for its centrality in our plural cultures, traditions and oral lore," the task force wrote in its report.
National vegetablePumpkinPumpkin or Meetha Kaddu is an integral part of Indian food
National flowerLotusLotus is the National Flower of India

Last updated on: 19/11/2019

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Andhra Pradesh



Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi).

As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth-most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. 

The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam

Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.

The north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014, and Hyderabad, the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. 

However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.

The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi) – the second-longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.

The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. 

The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.

The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. 

The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River, which has a GDP of US billion (as of 2010). 

The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹9.33 lakh crore (US$130 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹164,000 (US$2,400).

Andhra Pradesh ranks twentieth among Indian states in human development index.

The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year.

Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, and Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi. 

The state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta.

There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The coast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.

The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. 

Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is the only place in South India which receives snowfall because of its location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is also nicknamed as the "Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh" and the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".

The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.

The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".

Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form.

Indian Space Research Organisation's Satish Dhawan Space Centre is located at the Barrier Island of Sriharikota, in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.

Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the first largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command.

Andhra leads all other states in the production of Virginia Tobacco.

Nagarjuna Srisailam Sanctuary is the largest Tiger reserve in India. 

World's tallest masonry dam, Nagarjunasagar a 380 sq.km reservoir, and a 124 meter tall across the river Krishna, Andhra Pradesh's lifeline.

World's highest broad gauge rail track, Eastern Ghats rail route from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri is one the highest broad gauge tracks in the world.

World's richest temple,  Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in the town of Tirumala in Chittoor district is a very important pilgrimage site for Hindus throughout India.

Million year old caves, Borra Caves near Visakhapatnam believed to be a million years old.

Andhra Pradesh at a glance
No.of Districts 13
State Song Maa Telugu Thalliki
State Dance Kuchipudi
State Animal Black Buck
State BirdRose-ringed parakeet
State Tree Neem
State Flower Jasmine[8

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