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Agriculture


Agriculture is the primary sector of Indian economy and agriculture along with the ancillary sectors like forestry, horticulture, and fishing employed over 50% of the country's total population. 

Although in the GDP the share of agriculture is constantly falling, still it remains the largest economic sector and plays a major role in the socio-economic development of India. 

In India the state governments are responsible for the output of agriculture and the financial policies are formulated by the central government. India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper.


Agriculture in India got an impetus with the research work under the the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) established in 1905. 

The central body in agriculture and its allied fields is the Indian Council of Agricultural Research


Agriculture Sector of Indian Economy


The agriculture sector of India has occupied almost 43 percent of India's geographical area. 

Agriculture is still the only largest contributor to India's GDP even after a decline in the same in the agriculture share of India. Agriculture also plays a significant role in the growth of socio-economic sector in India.


In the earlier times, India was largely dependent upon food imports but the successive stories of the agriculture sector of Indian economy has made it self-sufficing in grain production. 

The country also has substantial reserves for the same. India depends heavily on the agriculture sector, especially on the food production unit after the 1960 crisis in food sector. Since then, India has put a lot of effort to be self-sufficient in the food production and this endeavor of India has led to the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution came into existence with the aim to improve the agriculture in India.


The services enhanced by the Green Revolution in the agriculture sector of Indian economy are as follows: 
  • Acquiring more area for cultivation purposes
  • Expanding irrigation facilities 
  • Use of improved and advanced high-yielding variety of seeds
  • Implementing better techniques that emerged from agriculture research Water management
  • Plan protection activities through prudent use of fertilizers, pesticides, and cropping applications
    All these measures taken by the Green Revolution led to an alarming rise in the wheat and rice production of India's agriculture. 

    Considering the quantum leap witnessed by the wheat and rice production unit of India's agriculture, a National Pulse Development Programme that covered almost 13 states, was set up in 1986 with the aim to introduce the improved technologies to the farmers. 

    A Technology Mission was introduced in 1986 right after the success of National Pulse Development Programme to boost the oilseeds sector in Indian economy. Pulses too came under this programme. A new seed policy was planned to provide entree to superior quality seeds and plant material for fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, pulses, and flowers.


    The Indian government also set up Ministry of Food Processing Industries to stimulate the agriculture sector of Indian economy and make it more lucrative. India's agriculture sector highly depends upon the monsoon season as heavy rainfall during the time leads to a rich harvest. But the entire year's agriculture cannot possibly depend upon only one season. 

    Taking into account this fact, a second Green Revolution is likely to be formed to overcome the such restrictions. An increase in the growth rate and irrigation area, improved water management, improving the soil quality, and diversifying into high value outputs, fruits, vegetables, herbs, flowers, medicinal plants, and bio-diesel are also on the list of the services to be taken by the Green Revolution to improve the agriculture in India.


    Revolutions in Indian Economy

    Revolution Area
    Green Revolution Agriculture
    Yellow Revolution Oil Seeds Production
    White Revolution Milk
    Blue Revolution Fish
    Pink Revolution Shrimp
    Brown Revolution Masaaley
    Grey Revolution Wool
    Golden Revolution Fruits, Apple, Horticulture
    Round Revolution Potatoes
    Silver Revolution Eggs
    Red Revolution Meet, Tomato
    Black or Brown Revolution Non Conventional Energy Resources


    Agriculture in India Planning


    Agriculture in India Planning is one of the major factors for the growth of the Indian economy which is still primarily agrarian.


    Agriculture is the most important sector in India. As the Indian economy is mainly based on agriculture, the annual output of products from the agricultural sector is an important factor in the growth of the economy. Agriculture also has a crucial role to play in Indian exports, where it has a significant contribution. 

    Many of the industries in India are dependent on agriculture for raw materials. So, without agriculture and agriculture-based products, the Indian economy cannot sustain or accelerate its growth rate.


    Agriculture Planning in India is a very important tool to enhance and maximize the total agriculture based produce. The planning in agriculture is mainly looked after by the Planning Commission of India which operates and executes under the aegis of the government of India. 

    Agriculture in India planning takes into account all factors that are related to the rural sector where most of Indian agriculture originates. The sole objective of the Planning Commission in terms of Agriculture Planning in India is to enhance the total output of agriculture and boost the economic growth of the country.

    The major objectives under Agriculture in India Planning:
    • Wastelands and underutilized lands to be utilized 
    • Development and reclamation of problematic lands
    • Harvesting the abundant rainwater for the purpose of irrigation
    • Irrigation development
    • Utility and conservation of natural resources
    • The activities to be diversified to high value crops
    • The intensity of cropping to be increased
    • To have adequate inputs on time
    Area of expansion under Agriculture in India Planning:
    • Improvement in production
    • Improvement in productivity
    • Reduction in the cost of production
    • Improvement in quality of the produce
    • Value additions
    • Promoting marketing and exports of the produce
    • Development in Human resource
    • Provision of proper storage facilities like store houses and warehouses

    The projections under the Agriculture in India Planning:
    • Growth in the Indian Agriculture is based on resources being used efficiently and conservation of natural resources
    • Growth must be equal in all the levels of the society including the farmers
    • Growth will be demand and export oriented
    • Growth will be due to the technological advancements
    • Growth rate is projected to be more than 4% 

    Agriculture in Different States of India


    The fertility of the soil has augmented agriculture in different states of India. Further, agriculture in different states of India played an important role towards the economic growth and social structure of each and every individual Indian states. 

    The produce and system of agriculture in different states of India are varied and thus offers a wide online agricultural products portfolio.

    The rural India is wholly agriculture based and it is of tremendous importance because it has vital supply and demand links with the Indian manufacturing sector. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy as it constitutes the backbone of rural India which inhabitants more than 70% of total Indian population. 

    The main agricultural food products of different states of India are


  • Food Grains - Rice, Wheat, Pulses, Cereals, Corn, Maize, Rice Bran Extractions, Sorghum, Soy meal, Suji, Parmal, Lentils, Jowar, Bajra, Chick pea, 




  • Fruits & Nuts - Cashew Kernels, Cashew Nut, Cashews, Almonds, Roasted Dry Fruits, Peanuts, Groundnut, Walnut Kernels, Walnuts, Indian Peanuts, HPS Groundnuts




  • Fruits - Bananas, Beans, Cherry, Cucumbers, Dried Fruits, Dried Truffles, Carrots, Lemon, Mandarins, Mango steens, Meslin, Shallots, Apples, Asparagus, Grapes, Oranges, Gherkins, Turnips, Oranges, Papaya, Pineapple,

  • Vegetables – Potatoes, Bitter gourd, Stripe Gourd, Pumpkin, cauliflower, Cabbage, Tomato, Onion, Green Pepper, Drum Sticks, Lady's finger, Banana, Papaya, Spinach, Cucumber, Mushroom, Mushroom Spawn, Radiata,

  • Seeds, Buds, Plantation & Related Products - Basil Seed, Cumin seeds, Dill Seed, Buds, Celery Seed, Hybrid Seeds, Sesame Seeds, Sesbania Seed, Sunflower Seeds, Mustard Seeds, Oil Seeds, Plant Products, Plantation, Plants, Psyllium Seed, Fennel Seed, Fenugreek Seed, Herb Seeds, Tamarind Seed, Vegetable Seeds

  • Spices - Black Pepper, Chilli Powder, Chillies, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander Powder, Cumin, Curry Powders, Dry Ginger, Dry Red Chilly, Cardamom, Anise, Salt, Onion Powder, Pepper, Fenugreek, Clove, Ginger, Turmeric, Turmeric Powder,

  • Tea & Coffee - Black Tea, Coffee, Coffee Beans, Darjeeling Teas, Assam Teas, Instant Coffee, Leaf Coffee, Leaf Tea, Packaged Tea, Green Tea, CTC Teas,

  • Tobacco & Tobacco Products - Beedi, Betel nut Leaves, Betel nut, Bidi Leaves, Chewing Tobacco, Cigarettes, Arecanut, Jarda, Scented Tobacco, Smoking Tobbacco, Snuff, Opium, Pan, Chatni, Pan Masala, Gutkazarda, Zafrani Zarda,



  • Important Points


    Green Revolution :
    - introduced in India with the name of HYVP - High Yielding Varieties Program, 1966 - 67.
    - started by Norman Borlaug of Mexico
    - In India, Green Revolution was introduced by M.S. Swaminathan and Agricultural Minister Mr. Subrahmanyam.

    White Revolution:
    - started in 1970
    - started in name of Operation Flood.
    - Father of  White Revolution is Vargis - Kuriyan
    - conducted by National Dairy Development Board

    NAFED :
    - National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Limited.
    - main function is marketing the agricultural products.

    MSP: Minimum Support Price :
    - Government announces MSP before cultivation
    - suggested by Agricultural Cost Price Commission
    - support price announced to 24 crops in India.

    Procuring Price:
    - Food Corporation of India announces it.
    - The price at which govt. procures grains per public distribution systems and buffer stocks is called procuring price

    Issue Price:
    The price at which the govt. of India issue goods to public distribution system is called Issue Price.

    > Highest Land Holding State - Rajastan , 4.34 Hectares

    > Lowest Land Holding State - Kerala, 0.36 Hectares

    > TRIFED
    - Tribal Co-operative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd
    - Government of India set up TRIFED in 1987
    - conducts marketing of Tribal Products

    > NAIS
    - National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
    - started on June 22, 1999.

    > AGMARK
    - Agricultural Produce Grading and Marking Act
    - Made in 1937
    - main function is to know the quality of agricultural products

    > FAO
    - Food and Agriculture Organization
    - started on October 16th, 1945 at Rome in Italy.
    - UNO is subsidiary organ

    > NSC
    - National Seeds Corporation
    - started in 1963

    Research Institutes Locations:
    World Rice Research Institute - Manila, Philippines
    Central Rice Research Institute - Cuttak, Odissa.
    Asia Largest Mirchi Yard ( Y.S.R Mirchi Yard )  - Guntur, A.P
    National Dairy Research Institute - Karnal, Haryana.
    Sheep Breeding Farm Research Institute - Hissar, Haryana.
    Sugarcane Research Institute - Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
    Coffee Board Research Institute - Bangalore, Karnataka.


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