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History of the Months and Days

History of the Months

The original Roman year had 10 named months Martius "March", Aprilis "April", Maius "May", Junius "June", Quintilis "July", Sextilis "August", SeptemberOctober "October", November "November", December "December", and probably two unnamed months in the dead of winter when not much happened in agriculture. "September",

The year began with Martius "March". Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome circa 700 BC, added the two months Januarius "January" and FebruariusMarius to JanuariusFebruarius there was occasionally an additional month of Intercalaris Intercalaris. "February".

He also moved the beginning of the year from and changed the number of days in several months to be odd, a lucky number. After "intercalendar". This is the origin of the leap-year day being in February. In 46 BC, Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar (hence the Julian calendar) changing the number of days in many months and removing

NameComes fromWho or what?Why?
January Janus God of Doors This month opens the year.
February februo purify This was a Roman month of sacrifices and purification.
March Mars God of War Start of year for soldiers (no fighting during winter)
April aperire open This is the month when trees open their leaves.
MayMaia Goddess of Growth This is the month when plants really start to grow.
June Juno Queen of the Gods
July Julius Caesar Ruler of Rome He reorganised the calendar.
August Augustus Ruler of Rome He thought he was at least as important as Julius Caesar!
September septem seven Seventh month (counting from March)
October octo eight Eighth month (counting from March)
November novem nine Ninth month (counting from March)
December decem ten Tenth month (counting from March)

Naming the Days of the Week

The Babylonians marked time with lunar months. They proscribed some activities during several days of the month, particularly the

first -- the first visible crecent,

seventh -- the waxing half moon,

fourteenth -- the full moon,

nineteenth -- dedicated to an offended goddess,

twenty-first -- the waning half moon,

twenty-eigth -- the last visible crecent,

twenty-nineth -- the invisible moon, and

thirtieth (possibly) -- the invisible moon.

The major periods are seven days, 1/4 month, long. This seven-day period was later regularized and disassociated from the lunar month to become our seven-day week.

The Naming of the Days

The Greeks named the days week after the sun, the moon and the five known planets, which were in turn named after the gods Ares, Hermes, Zeus, Aphrodite, and Cronus. The Greeks called the days of the week the Theon hemerai "days of the Gods". 

The Romans substituted their equivalent gods for the Greek gods, Mars, Mercury, Jove (Jupiter), Venus, and Saturn. (The two pantheons are very similar.) The Germanic peoples generally substituted roughly similar gods for the Roman gods, Tiu (Twia), Woden, Thor, Freya (Fria), but did not substitute Saturn.

Sunday -- Sun's day 

Middle English sone(n)day or sun(nen)day

Old English sunnandæg "day of the sun"

Germanic sunnon-dagaz "day of the sun"

Latin dies solis "day of the sun"

Ancient Greek hemera heli(o)u, "day of the sun"

Monday -- Moon's day

Middle English monday or mone(n)day

Old English mon(an)dæg "day of the moon"

Latin dies lunae "day of the moon"

Ancient Greek hemera selenes "day of the moon"

Tuesday -- Tiu's day

Middle English tiwesday or tewesday

Old English tiwesdæg "Tiw's (Tiu's) day"

Latin dies Martis "day of Mars"

Ancient Greek hemera Areos "day of Ares"

Tiu (Twia) is the English/Germanic god of war and the sky. He is identified with the Norse god Tyr.

Mars is the Roman god of war.

Ares is the Greek god of war.

Wednesday -- Woden's day 

Middle English wodnesday, wednesday, or wednesdai

Old English wodnesdæg "Woden's day"

Latin dies Mercurii "day of Mercury"

Ancient Greek hemera Hermu "day of Hermes"

Woden is the chief Anglo-Saxon/Teutonic god. Woden is the leader of the Wild Hunt. Woden is from wod "violently insane" + -en "headship". He is identified with the Norse Odin.

Mercury is the Roman god of commerce, travel, theivery, eloquence and science. He is the messenger of the other gods.

Hermes is the Greek god of commerce, invention, cunning, and theft. He is the messenger and herald of the other gods. He serves as patron of travelers and rogues, and as the conductor of the dead to Hades.

Thursday -- Thor's day 

Middle English thur(e)sday

Old English thursdæg

Old Norse thorsdagr "Thor's day"

Old English thunresdæg "thunder's day"

Latin dies Jovis "day of Jupiter"

Ancient Greek hemera Dios "day of Zeus".

Thor is the Norse god of thunder. He is represented as riding a chariot drawn by goats and wielding the hammer Miölnir. He is the defender of the Aesir, destined to kill and be killed by the Midgard Serpent.

Jupiter (Jove) is the supreme Roman god and patron of the Roman state. He is noted for creating thunder and lightning.

Zeus is Greek god of the heavens and the supreme Greek god.

Friday -- Freya's day 

Middle English fridai 

Old English frigedæg "Freya's day"

composed of Frige (genetive singular of Freo) + dæg "day" (most likely)

or composed of Frig "Frigg" + dæg "day" (least likely)

Germanic frije-dagaz "Freya's (or Frigg's) day"

Latin dies Veneris "Venus's day"

Ancient Greek hemera Aphrodites "day of Aphrodite"

Freo is identical with freo, meaning free. It is from the Germanic frijaz meaning "beloved, belonging to the loved ones, not in bondage, free".

Freya (Fria) is the Teutonic goddess of love, beauty, and fecundity (prolific procreation). She is identified with the Norse god Freya. She is leader of the Valkyries and one of the Vanir. She is confused in Germany with Frigg.

Frigg (Frigga) is the Teutonic goddess of clouds, the sky, and conjugal (married) love. She is identified with Frigg, the Norse goddess of love and the heavens and the wife of Odin. She is one of the Aesir. She is confused in Germany with Freya.

Venus is the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

Aphrodite (Cytherea) is the Greek goddess of love and beauty.

Saturday -- Saturn's day 

Middle English saterday

Old English sæter(nes)dæg "Saturn's day"

Latin dies Saturni "day of Saturn"

Ancient Greek hemera Khronu "day of Cronus"

Saturn is the Roman and Italic god of agriculture and the consort of Ops. He is believed to have ruled the earth during an age of happiness and virtue.

Cronus (Kronos, Cronos) is the Greek god (Titan) who ruled the universe until dethroned by his son Zeus.



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