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Human Development Index



1) The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped (low development) countries.

2) The statistic is composed from data on life expectancy, education and per-capita GNI (as an indicator of standard of living) collected at the national level using the formula

3) The origins of the HDI are to be found in the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) Human Development Reports (HDRs). These were devised and launched by Pakistani Economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990.

4) It was Amartya Sen’s work on capabilities and functionings that provided the underlying conceptual framework.

5) The HDI combined three dimensions up until its 2009 report:
  • Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity
  • Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting).
  • Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.
6) Starting with the 2010 report the HDI combines three dimensions:
  • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
  • Access to knowledge: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
  • A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)
7) New methodology:
In its 2010 Human Development Report the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. 

The following three indices are used:

 Life Expectancy Index (LEI)= \frac{\textrm{LE} - 20}{83.2 - 20}


Education Index (EI) = \frac{\sqrt{\textrm{MYSI} \cdot \textrm{EYSI}} - 0} {0.951 - 0}


Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) = \frac{\textrm{MYS} - 0}{13.2 - 0}


Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) = \frac{\textrm{EYS} - 0}{20.6 - 0}


Income Index (II)= \frac{\ln(\textrm{GNIpc}) - \ln(100)}{\ln(107,721) - \ln(100)}


Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:


\textrm{HDI} = \sqrt[3]{\textrm{LEI}\cdot \textrm{EI} \cdot \textrm{II}}.

LE: Life expectancy at birth

MYS: Mean years of schooling (Years that a 25 year old person or older has spent in schools)

EYS: Expected years of schooling (Years that a 5 year old child will spend with his education in his whole life)

GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita


8) Norway got First HDI Rank in 2013 report
  
9) India got 136 rank in 2013 report

10) In India, National Human Development Index is prepared by  (NSSO) National Statistical Survey Organisation.

11) National Statistical Survey Organisation prepares National Human Development Index for every 10 years.

12) NSSO is preparing National Human Development Index from 1981 onwards.


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