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Ocean


Water and water bodies are the main constituent of earth as more than 70% of earth's surface is covered by water.

Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean and South China Sea are the few largest oceans and sea of the world.

Pacific Ocean covers more than one-third of the entire earth's surface and close to half of Earth's water surface. 

Atlantic Ocean is world's second largest ocean covering one-fifth of the total surface area of the Earth. 

Third largest ocean of the world, Indian Ocean is surrounded by Arabian Peninsula and south-east Asia in north, Antarctic in the south, Africa in west and Australia in east. 

Lying virtually above the Artic Circle, the Artic Ocean is the smallest and the shallowest oceans of the world. 

South China Sea, one of the largest sea bodies after the 5 largest oceans of the world, clusters hundreds and hundreds of islands in it.

Largest oceans and sea map indicates the name and location of 10 most prominent water bodies of earth. This largest oceans and sea map can prove to be useful especially for educational purposes. 
The 10 Largest Territorial Countries (in million sq km's)

Country Land Area Sea Claims Total Area
1. Australia 7,700,000 28,500,000 36,200,000
2. Russia 17,100,000 21,500,000 38,600,000
3. USA 9,400,000 20,000,000 29,400,000
4. Canada 9,900,000 12,400,000 22,300,000
5. China 9,600,000 11,400,000 21,000,000
6. Brazil 8,500,000 11,000,000 19,500,000
7. France 500,000 6,000,000 6,500,000
8. Indonesia 1,900,000 6,000,000 7,900,000
9. India 3,200,000 5,700,000 8,900,000
10. New Zealand 300,000 5,500,000 5,800,000



OCEAN GEOGRAPHY


There are 328,000,000 cubic miles of seawater on earth, covering approximately 71 percent of earth's surface. 

By volume, the ocean makes up 99 percent of the planet's living space- the largest space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms.
 
About 97 percent of all water on earth is in our oceans, 2 percent is frozen in our ice caps and glaciers, less than 0.3 percent is carried in the atmosphere in the form of clouds, rain, and snow. All of our inland seas, lakes and channels combined add up to only 0.02 percent of earth's water.

The Antarctic Ice Sheet is almost twice the size of the United States.

Earth's ocean is made up of more than 20 seas and four oceans: Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Pacific, the oldest and the largest.

The ocean accounts for 0.022 percent of the total weight of earth, weighing an estimated 1,450,000,000,000,000,000 short tons (1 short ton = 2,000lbs).

The average worldwide ocean depth is about 12,460 feet (3,798 meters), with the deepest point of 36,198 feet (11,033 meters) which is located in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean; the tallest mountain, Mount Everest, measures 29,022 feet (8,846 meters). If Mount Everest were to be placed into the Mariana Trench it would be covered with sea water more than a mile (1.5 km ) deep.

Although Mount Everest is often called the tallest mountain on Earth, Mauna Kea, an inactive volcano on the island of Hawaii, is actually taller. Only 13,796 feet of Mauna Kea stands above sea level, yet it is 33,465 feet tall if measured from the ocean floor to its summit

A slow cascade of water beneath the Denmark Strait sinks 2.2 miles; more than 3.5 times farther than Venezuela's Angel Falls, the tallest waterfall on land.

Earth's largest continuous mountain chain is the Mid-Ocean Ridge, stretching for 40,000 miles, rising above the surface of the water in a few places, such as Iceland. It is four times longer than the Andes, Rocky Mountains, and Himalayas combined.

Ninety percent of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans. In 1993, scientists located the largest known concentration of active volcanoes on the sea floor in the South Pacific. This area, the size of New York State, hosts 1,133 volcanic cones and seamounts. Two or three could erupt at any moment.

The highest tides in the world are at the Bay of Fundy, which separates New Brunswick from Nova Scotia. At some times of the year the difference between high and low tide is 53 feet 6 inches, the equivalent of a five-story building.

Canada has the longest coastline of any country, at 56,453 miles or around 15 percent of the world's 372,384 miles of coastlines.

In 1958, the United States Coast Guard icebreaker East Wind measured the world's tallest known iceberg off western Greenland. At 550 feet it was only 5 feet 6 inches shorter than the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.

The volume of the Earth's moon is the same as the volume of the Pacific Ocean.


    Ocean as WEATHER Maker


    The ocean determines climate and plays a critical role in Earth's habitability. Most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth is stored in the ocean and helps power oceanic and atmospheric circulation. In this manner, the ocean plays an important role in influencing the weather and climatic patterns of the Earth.

    Two hundred million years of recorded geologic and biologic history of the Earth are found in the ocean's floor. By studying ocean sediments, scientists can learn about ancient climate, how it changed, and how better to predict our own climate.

    The top 10 feet of the ocean hold the same amount of thermal energy as exists in the entire atmosphere.

    El NiZo, a periodic shift of warm waters from the western to eastern Pacific Ocean, has dramatic effects on climate worldwide. In 1997-1998, the most severe El NiZo of the century created droughts, crop failures, fires, torrential rains, floods, landslides--total damages were estimated at more than $90 billion (United Nations)

    Undersea earthquakes and other disturbances cause tsunamis, or great waves. The largest recorded tsunami measured 210 feet above sea level when it reached Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in 1737.


      OUR USE OF THE OCEAN


      Substances from marine plants and animals are used in scores of products, including medicine, ice cream, toothpaste, fertilizers, gasoline, cosmetics, and livestock feed.

      Examine the foods in your own kitchen and you may find the terms "alginate" and "carrageenan" on the labels. Carrageenans are compounds extracted from red algae that are used to stabilize and jell foods and pharmaceuticals. 

      Brown algae contain alginates that make foods thicker and creamier and add to shelf life. They are used to prevent ice crystals from forming in ice cream. 

      Alginates and carrageenans are often used in puddings, milkshakes, and ice cream. The commonly used color additive beta-carotene often comes from green algae as well as many vegetables, including carrots.  Many people don't realize that kelp is harvested like wheat; a substance called algin is extracted and is used in lipstick, toothpaste and ice cream. You might be wearing kelp right now, since it is used in the dyes that color our clothes.

      Oils from the orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, a deep-sea fish from New Zealand, are used in making shampoo.

      The remains of diatoms, algae with hard shells, are used in making pet litter, cosmetics, pool filters and tooth polish.

      The ocean holds immense quantities of protein. The total annual commercial harvest from the seas exceeds 85 million metric tons. Fish is the biggest source of wild or domestic protein in the world.

      Since the architecture and chemistry of coral are very close to human bone, coral has been used to replace bone grafts in helping human bones to heal quickly and cleanly.

      Horseshoe crabs have existed in essentially the same form for the past 135 million years. Their blood provides a valuable test for the toxins that cause septic shock, which previously led to half of all hospital-acquired infections and one-fifth of all hospital deaths.

      Over 90 percent of trade among countries is carried by ships. 

      The ocean is a source of mineral deposits, including oil and gas.

      About half the communications between nations are via underwater cables. 
      Many nations' battles have been fought on or under the water. 

      Knowing oceanography can enhance the conditions for trade, communications, and defense.


        OUR MISUSE OF THE OCEAN


        The largest amount of oil entering the ocean through human activity is the 363 million gallons that come from industrial waste and automobiles. When people pour their used motor oil into the ground or into a septic system, it eventually seeps into the groundwater. Coupled with industrial waste discharged into rivers, oil becomes part of the run-off from waterways that empty into the ocean. All of this oil impacts ocean ecosystems.
         
        The Coast Guard estimates that for United States waters, sewage treatment plants discharge twice as much oil each year as tanker spills.
         
        Animals may perish when the oil slicks their fur or downy feathers, decreasing the surface area so they are no longer insulated from the cold water. Or the animals may ingest the oil, then become sick or unable to reproduce properly.

        Each year industrial, household cleaning, gardening, and automotive products are added as water pollutants. About 65,000 chemicals are used commercially in the United States today, with about 1,000 new ones added each year. Only about 300 have been extensively tested for toxicity.

        It is estimated that medical waste that washed up onto Long Island and New Jersey beaches in the summer of 1988 cost as much as $3 billion in lost revenue from tourism and recreation.

        The most frequently found item in beach cleanups are pieces of plastic. The next four items are plastic foam, plastic utensils, pieces of glass and cigarette butts.

        Lost or discarded fishing nets keep on fishing. Called "ghost nets," this gear entangles fish, marine mammals, and sea birds, preventing them from feeding or causing them to drown. As many as 20,000 northern fur seals may die each year from becoming entangled in netting.

        The Mississippi River drains more than 40 percent of the continental United States, carrying excess nutrients into the Gulf of Mexico. Decay of the resulting algae blooms consumes oxygen, kills shellfish and displaces fish in a 4,000 square mile bottom area off the coast of Louisiana and Texas, called the "dead zone."

        The zebra mussel is the most famous unwanted ship stowaway, but the animals and plants being transported to new areas through ship ballast water is a problem around the world. Poisonous algae, cholera, and countless plants and animals have invaded harbor waters and disrupted ecological balance.

        There are 109 countries with coral reefs. Reefs in 90 of them are being damaged by cruise ship anchors and sewage, by tourists breaking off chunks of coral, and by commercial harvesting for sale to tourists.

        One study of a cruise ship anchor dropped in a coral reef for one day found an area about half the size of a football field completely destroyed, and half again as much covered by rubble that died later. It was estimated that coral recovery would take fifty years.

        Egypt's High Aswan Dam, built in the 1960s to provide electricity and irrigation water, diverts up to 95 percent of the Nile River's normal flow. It has since trapped more than one million tons of nutrient rich silt and caused a sharp decline in Mediterranean sardine and shrimp fisheries.

        The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that of the seventeen major fisheries areas in the world, four are depleted and the other thirteen are either fished to capacity or overfished.

        Commercial marine fisheries in the United States discard up to 20 billion pounds of non-target fish each year-- twice the catch of desired commercial and recreational fishing combined. Worldwide this adds up to a staggering 60 billion pounds each year!!

        With only 4.3 percent of the world population, Americans use about one-third of the world's processed mineral resources and about one-fourth of the world's non-renewable energy sources, like oil and coal.


          REAL FACTS ABOUT OCEAN LIFE


          The oceans occupy nearly 71% of our planet's surface
           
          More than 97% of all our planet's water is contained in the ocean
           
          The top ten feet of the ocean hold as much heat as our entire atmosphere
           
          The average depth of the ocean is more than 2.5 miles
           
          The oceans provide 99 percent of the Earth's living space- the largest space in our universe known to be inhabited by living organisms
           
          More than 90% of this habitat exists in the deep sea known as the abyss
           
          Less than 10% of this living space has been explored by humans
           
          Mount Everest (the highest point on the Earth's surface 5.49 miles) is more than 1 mile shorter than the Challenger Deep (the deepest point in the ocean at 6.86 miles)
           
          The longest continuous mountain chain known to exist in the Universe resides in the ocean at more than 40,000 miles long
           
          The Monterey Bay Submarine Canyon is deeper and larger in volume than the Grand Canyon
           
          The Antarctic ice sheet that forms and melts over the ocean each year is nearly twice the size of the United States
           
          The average temperature of the oceans is 2ºC, about 39ºF
           
          Water pressure at the deepest point in the ocean is more than 8 tons per square inch, the equivalent of one person trying to hold 50 jumbo jets.
           
          The Gulf Stream off the Atlantic seaboard of the United States flows at a rate nearly 300 times faster than the typical flow of the Amazon river, the world's largest river
           
          The worlds oceans contain nearly 20 million tons of gold
           
          The color blue is least absorbed by seawater; the same shade of blue is most absorbed by microscopic plants, called phytoplankton, drifting in seawater
           
          A new form of life, based on chemical energy rather than light energy, resides in deep-sea hydrothermal vents along mid-ocean ridges
           
          A swallow of seawater may contain millions of bacterial cells, hundreds of thousands of phytoplankton and tens of thousands of zooplankton
           
          The blue whale, the largest animal on our planet ever (exceeding the size of the greatest dinosaurs) still lives in the ocean; it's heart is the size of a Volkswagen
           
          The gray whale migrates more than 10,000 miles each year, the longest migration of any mammal
           
          The Great Barrier Reef, measuring 1,243 miles, is the largest living structure on 
          Earth. It can be seen from the Moon.

           
          More than 90 percent of the trade between countries is carried by ships and about half the communications between nations use underwater cables
           
          More oil reaches the oceans each year as a result of leaking automobiles and other non-point sources than was spilled in Prince William Sound by the Exxon Valdez
           
          Fish supply the greatest percentage of the world's protein consumed by humans
          Most of the world's major fisheries are being fished at levels above their maximum sustainable yield; some regions are severely overfished
           
          The Grand Banks, the pride of New England fishing for centuries, are closed due to overfishing
           
          Eighty per cent of all pollution in seas and oceans comes from land-based activities.
           
          Three-quarters of the world's mega-cities are by the sea.
           
          By 2010, 80 per cent of people will live within 60 miles of the coast.

          Death and disease caused by polluted coastal waters costs the global economy US$12.8 billion a year. The annual economic impact of hepatitis from tainted seafood alone is US$7.2 billion.
           
          Plastic waste kills up to 1 million sea birds, 100,000 sea mammals and countless fish each year. Plastic remains in our ecosystem for years harming thousands of sea creatures everyday.
           
          Over the past decade, an average of 600,000 barrels of oil a year has been accidentally spilled from ships, the equivalent of 12 disasters the size of the sinking of the oil tanker Prestige in 2002.
           
          Tropical coral reefs border the shores of 109 countries, the majority of which are among the world's least developed. Significant reef degradation has occurred in 93 countries.
           
          Although coral reefs comprise less than 0.5 per cent of the ocean floor, it is estimated that more than 90 per cent of marine species are directly or indirectly dependent on them.
           
          There are about 4,000 coral reef fish species worldwide, accounting for approximately a quarter of all marine fish species.
           
          Nearly 60 per cent of the world's remaining reefs are at significant risk of being lost in the next three decades.
           
          The major causes of coral reef decline are coastal development, sedimentation, destructive fishing practices, pollution, tourism and global warming.
           
          Less than one half a per cent of marine habitats are protected -- compared with 11.5 per cent of global land area.
           
          The High Seas -- areas of the ocean beyond national jurisdiction -- cover almost 50 per cent of the Earth's surface. They are the least protected part of the world.
           
          Although there are some treaties that protect ocean-going species such as whales, as well as some fisheries agreements, there are no protected areas in the High Seas.
           
          Studies show that protecting critical marine habitats -- such as warm-and cold-water coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves -- can dramatically increase fish size and quantity.
           
          More than 3.5 billion people depend on the ocean for their primary source of food. In 20 years, this number could double to 7 billion.
           
          Populations of commercially attractive large fish, such as tuna, cod, swordfish and marlin have declined by as much as 90 per cent in the past century.
           
          Each year, illegal longline fishing, which involves lines up to 80 miles long, with thousands of baited hooks, kills over 300,000 seabirds, including 100,000 albatrosses.
           
          As many as 100 million sharks are killed each year for their meat and fins, which are used for shark fin soup. Hunters typically catch the sharks, de-fin them while alive and throw them back into the ocean where they either drown or bleed to death.
           
          Global by-catch -- unintended destruction caused by the use of non-selective fishing gear, such as trawl nets, longlines and gillnets -- amounts to 20 million tons a year.
           
          The annual global by-catch mortality of small whales, dolphins and porpoises alone is estimated to be more than 300,000 individuals.
           
          Fishing for wild shrimp represents 2 per cent of global seafood but one-third of total by-catch. The ratio of by-catch from shrimp fishing ranges from 5:1 in temperate zones to 10:1 and more in the tropics.   

          Hydrothermal vents, fractures in the sea floor that spew sulphur compounds, support the only complex ecosystem known to run on chemicals, rather than energy from the sun.

          Life began in the seas 3.1 billion to 3.4 billion years ago. Land dwellers appeared 400 million years ago; a relatively recent point in the geologic time line.

          The blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, is the largest known animal ever to have lived on sea or land. They can reach over 110 feet and weigh almost 200 tons (more than the combined weight of 50 adult elephants). The blue whale's blood vessels are so broad that a full-grown trout could swim through them, and the heart is the size of a small car.

          The oarfish, Regalecus glesne, is the longest bony fish in the world. With its snakelike body, sporting a magnificent red fin along its 50-foot length horselike face and blue gills, it accounts for many sea-serpent sightings

          Green turtles can migrate more than 1,400 miles to lay their eggs.

          Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, are among the largest and fastest marine fish. 

          An adult may weigh 1,500 pounds and swim up to 55 miles per hour.

          Penguins "fly" underwater at up to 55 miles per hour.

          A group of herring is called a seige. A group of jelly fish is called a smack.

          Many fish can change sex during the course of their lives. Others, especially rare deep-sea fish, have both male and female sex organs.

          Giant kelp, the fastest growing plant in the ocean, can grow up to 2 feet per day. 

          Under optimal conditions, giant kelp can grow to a length of more than 100 feet in little more than a year and can grow to a maximum of 200 feet. 


            OCEAN IN PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY


            At the deepest point in the ocean the pressure is more than 8 tons per square inch, or the equivalent of one person trying to hold-up 50 jumbo jets against the force of gravity.

            The major ions in seawater are Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Sr2+, Cl-, SO42- (sulfate), HCO3- (bicarbonate), Br-, B(OH)3 (boric acid), and F-. Together, they account for almost all of the salt in seawater.

            At 39 degrees Fahrenheit (3.89 degrees Celsius), the temperature of almost all of the deep ocean is only a few degrees above freezing.

            If extracted, it is estimated that all the gold suspended in the world's seawater would give each person on Earth 9 pounds.

            If the ocean's total salt content were dried, it would cover the continents to a depth of 500 feet.


            When nitrogen and phosphorus from sources such as fertilizer, sewage and detergents enter coastal waters, oxygen depletion occurs. One gram of nitrogen can cause enough organic growth to require 15 grams of oxygen to decompose the resulting vegetation. A single gram of phosphorus will deplete about one hundred grams of oxygen. 


              Coastlines


              The total length of the world's coastlines is about 315,000 miles, enough to circle the Equator 12 times.


              As coastal zones become more and more crowded, the quality of coastal water will suffer, the wildlife will be displaced, and the shorelines will erode. 60% of the Pacific and 35% of the Atlantic Coast shoreline are eroding at a rate of a meter every year.


              More than half the world’s population live within a 100 km or 60 miles distance from the coast. This is more than 2.7 billion people. Rapid urbanization will lead to more coastal mega-cities containing 10 million or more people. By the end of the millennium 13 out of 15 of the world’s largest cities will be located on or near the coast. 

              Growing population in coastal areas leads to more marine pollution and distribution of coastal habitats. Some 6,5 million tons (6,500,000,000 kilo) of litter finds its way into the sea each year.
              (Close to one-half of all Americans live in coastal counties).



              Fisheries


              The sea provides the biggest source of wild or domestic protein in the world. Each year some 70 to 75 million tons of fish are caught in the ocean. Of this amount around 29 million tons is for human consumption. The global fish production exceeds that of cattle, sheep, poultry or eggs. Fish can be produced in two ways: by capture and by aqua culture. The total production has grown 34% over the last decade.


              The largest numbers of fish are located in the Southern Hemisphere due to the fact that these waters are not largely exploited by man.


              Fifteen out of seventeen of the world's largest fisheries are so heavily exploited that the reproduction can't keep up. With the result that many fish populations are decreasing rapidly.


              Species of fish endangered by overfishing are: tuna, salmon, haddock, halibut, and cod.


              In the 19th century, codfish weighing up to 200 pounds used to be caught. Nowadays, a 40 pound cod is considered a giant. Reason: overfishing.




              Rising Sea Level


              The sea level has risen with an average of 4-10 inches (10 to 25 cm) over the past 100 years and scientists expect this rate to increase. Sea levels will continue rising even if the climate has stabilized, because the ocean reacts slowly to changes.

              10,000 years ago the ocean level was about 330 ft (110 mtr) lower than it is now.

              If all the world's ice melted, the oceans would rise 200 ft (66 mtr).


              Volcanic Activity


              90% of all volcanic activity on Earth occurs in the ocean. The largest known concentration of active volcanoes (approximately 1,133) on the sea floor is located in the South Pacific


              Density


              The density of ocean water varies. It becomes more dense as it becomes colder, right down to its freezing point of -1.9 degrees C. (This is unlike fresh water, which is most dense at 4 degrees C, well above its freezing point.)


              Water temperature


              Under the enormous pressures of the deep ocean, sea water can reach very high temperatures without boiling. A water temperature of 400 degrees C has been measured at one hydrothermal vent.

              The average temperature of all ocean water is about 3.5° C.

              Almost all of the deep ocean temperatures are only a little warmer than freezing (39°F).




              Ice 

              Antarctica has as much ice as the Atlantic Ocean has water.

              10% of the earth's surface is covered with ice.

              The Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean, holding only one percent of the Earth's seawater. This is still more than 25 times as much water as all rivers and fresh water lakes.

              The average thickness of the Arctic ice sheet is about 9 to 10 feet, although there are some areas as thick as 65 feet.

              In the unlikely event that all the polar ice were to melt, the sea level all over the world would rise 500 to 600 feet. As a result, 85 to 90% of the Earth's surface would be covered with water as compared to the current 71%. The U.S. would be split by the Mississippi Sea, which would connect the Great Lakes with the Gulf of Mexico.

              The Arctic produces 10,000 to 50,000 icebergs annually. The amount produced in the Antarctic regions is inestimable. Icebergs normally have a four-year life-span; they begin entering shipping lanes after about three years.

              Carbon Dioxide Absorption


              Oceans absorb between 30% and 50% of the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuel. Carbon dioxide is transported downwards by plankton. Any change in the temperature of the ocean water, influences the ability of plankton to take up carbon dioxide. This has consequences for the ecosystem, because plankton form the base of the food web.


              Reefs


              Over 60% of the world's coral reefs are threatened as a result of pollution, sedimentation and bleaching due to rising water temperatures caused by global warming. Global Coral Monitoring Network (GCRMN) states that currently 27% of all coral reef worldwide has disappeared and around 2050 only 30% will be left.


              Rubbish/Contamination

              In one year, three times as much rubbish is dumped into the world's oceans as the weight of fish caught.
               
              A single quart of motor oil can contaminate up to 2 million gallons of drinking water.
               


              Gold  

              If all the gold suspended in the world's seawater were mined, each person on Earth could have about 9 pounds of gold.

              Oil  

              Oil is one of the ocean's greatest resources. nearly one-third of the world's oil comes from offshore fields in our oceans. Areas most popular for oil drilling are the Arabian Gulf, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. 

              Oil was also borne from the sea. Millions of years ago, countless marine microscipic plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) lived in the ancient seas as they do today. As they died, the skeletal remains of these tiny organisms settled to the sea floor, mixed with mud and silt, and over millions of years, formed organic-rich sedimentary layers. 

              Other sediments continued to be deposited and further buried the oganic-rich sediment layer to depths of thousands of feet, compressing the layers into a rock that would become the source for oil. 

              Over the years, as the depth of the burial increased, pressure increased, along with the temperature. Under such conditions, and over long periods of time, the original skeletal remains of phytoplankton and zooplankton changed, breaking down into simpler substances called hydrocarbons - compounds of hydrogen and carbon. This process still continues, although it will be millions of years before the next batch of oil is done cooking.
              Salinity
              Some scientists estimate that the oceans contain as much as 50 quadrillion tons (50 million billion tons=50,000,000,000,000,000) of dissolved solids. If the salt in the ocean could be removed and spread evenly over the Earth’s land surface it would form a layer more than 500 feet (166 m) thick, about the height of a 40-story office building.
               
              The ocean's principal dissolved solids are sodium salts (sodium chloride or common salt), calcium salts (calcium carbonate or lime, and calcium sulfate), potassium salts (potassium sulfate), and magnesium salts (magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and magnesium bromide).
               
              Atlantic sea water is heavier than Pacific sea water due to its higher salt content.
               
              The freezing point of sea water depends on its salt content. Typical ocean water has about 35 grams of salt per liter and freezes at -19 degrees C.



              Seawater's Inorganic Salt Components



              Chloride
              Sodium
              Sulfate
              Magnesium
              Calcium
              Potassium
              Carbonic Acid
              Bromine
              Boric Acid
              Strontium 
              Total 

              Cl-
              NA+
              SO4--
              Mg++
              Ca++
              K+
              HCO3-
              Br-
              H3Bo3
              Sr++ 

              55.04%
              30.61%
               7.68%
               3.69%
               1.16%
               1.16%
               0.41%
               0.19%
               0.07%
               0.04% 
              99.

              Desalination

              Arabian Gulf reverse osmosis plants treat 500,000,000 gallons of sea water to obtain 100,000,000 gallons of fresh water. Daily over 500,000,000 gallons of Seawater must be heated to extremely high temperatures. 

              Mixed with toxic chemicals the Seawater is injected under high pressure through a series of membrane filters. Only 100,000,000 gallons of fresh water is generated. 

              The 5:1 ratio of this highly inefficient process means 400,000,000 gallons of untreated water are returned to the sea each day. The higher temperature of the discharged water causes environmental problems. 

              Worse, the super heated brine discharge has significantly higher levels of total dissolved solids, and toxic chemicals are mixed in with it. This pollution is usually discharged back into the sea. 




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