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Poverty


Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them

Poverty is widespread in India, with the nation estimated to have a third of the world's poor.

According to a 2005 World Bank estimate, 41% of India falls below the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms Indian Rupee 21.6 a day in urban areas and Indian Rupee 14.3 in rural areas) having reduced from 60% in 1981.

Since the 1950s, the Indian government and non-governmental organizations have initiated several programs to alleviate poverty, including subsidizing food and other necessities, increased access to loans, improving agricultural techniques and price supports, and promoting education and family planning.



Poverty Line:
The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living in a given country

Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the essential resources that an average human adult consumes in one year.



Poverty Types
1) Absolute Poverty
2) Relative Poverty

Absolute Poverty: Measures with the poverty line, the level of income or expenditure of the people below the poverty line.

Relative Poverty: Shows the relative levels of poverty by comparing the levels of income and expenditure of top 5 to 10% of the population.



Amartyasen prepared Povert Index to know the status of poor people ,how far from poverty line.



As per 1968 Dietitians report, the minimum required Calories for a person per day is :
2100 K.Cal in Urban areas and
2400 K.Cal in Rural areas

In 2004-05 the availability of K.Cal in Rural areas are 2047 K.Cal



According to National Sample Survey Organisation Report,

Hight Poverty is in - Odissa

Lowest povert is in - Punjab


Rural poverty


Basic reasons of rural poverty in India are:
  • Unequal distribution of income.
  • High population growth.
  • Illiteracy.
  • Large families.
  • Caste system.

Problems Of Rural Poverty:
  • Presence of malnutrition, illiteracy, diseases and long term health problems.
  • Unhygienic living conditions, lack of proper housing, high infant mortality rate, injustice to women and social ill-treatment of certain sections of society.

Steps Taken by Government to Reduce Rural Poverty:

The government of India has been trying its best to remove poverty. Some of the measures which the government has taken to remove rural poverty are:
  • Small farmer’s development Programme.
  • Drought area development Programme.
  • Minimum needs Programme.
  • National rural employment Programme.
  • Assurance on employment.
  • Causes for Urban Poverty.

Urban Poverty


Causes for Urban Poverty

The causes of urban poverty in India are:
  • Improper training
  • Slow job growth.
  • Failure of PDS system
Problems Of Urban Poverty
  • Restricted access to employment opportunities and income.
  • Lack of proper housing facilities
  • Unhygienic environments
  • No social security schemes
  • Lack of opportunity to quality health and educational services.

The steps taken by government to remove urban poverty are
  • Nehru Rozgar Yojna.
  • Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna.
  • Urban Basic services for the poor Programme.
  • National social Assistance Programme.

Poverty Eradication Programmes in India



Small farmer’s development Programme.

Drought area development Programme.

Minimum needs Programme.

National rural employment Programme.

Nehru Rozgar Yojna.

Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna.

Urban Basic services for the poor Programme.

National social Assistance Programme.

Community Development Programme - 1952 - Overall development of rural areas with people’s participation.

Intensive Agriculture Development Programme - 1960-61 - To provide loan, seeds, fertilizer, tools to the farmers.

Employment Guarantee Scheme of Maharashtra - 1972-73 - To assist the economically weaker section of the rural society.

Twenty Point Programme - 1975 - Poverty eradication and raising the standard of living.

Food for work Programme - 1977-78 - Providing food grains to labour for the work of development.

National Rural Employment Programme - 1980 - To provide profitable employment opportunities to the rural poor.

Development of women & children in Rural Areas - 1982 - To provide suitable opportunities of self-employment to the women belonging to the rural families who are living below the poverty line.

Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme - 1983 - For providing employment to landless farmers & labourers.

Self-employment of the Educated Unemployed Youth - 1983-84 - To provide financial and technical assistance for self-employment.

Council for Advancement of People’s Action & Rural Technology - 1986 - To provide assistance for rural prosperity.

Self-Employment programme for the Urban poor - 1986 - To provide self employment to urban poor through provision of subsidiary and bank credit.

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana - 1989 - To provide employment to rural unemployed.

Nehru Rozgar Yojana - 1989 - To provide employment to urban unemployed.

Scheme for Urban Micro Enterprises - 1990 - To assist the urban poor for small enterprises.

Scheme for Urban Wage Employment - 1990 - To provide wages employment after arranging the basic facilities for poor people in the urban areas where population is less than one lakh.

Scheme for Housing and Shelter Up-gradation - 1990 - To provide employment by means of shelter up-gradation in the urban areas where population is between 1 to 20 lakhs.

Employment Assurance Scheme - 1993 - To provide employment of at least 100 days in a year in villages.

Swaran Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana - 1997 - To provide gainful employment to urban unemployed and under employed poor through self employment or wage employment.

Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana - 1999 - For eliminating rural poverty and unemployment and promoting self employment.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana - 2000 - To line all villages with Pacca road.

Sampurna Gramin Rojgar Yojana - 2001 - Providing employment & food security.

Jai Prakash Narain Rozgar Guarantee Yojana - 2002-3 - Employment guarantee in most poor districts.

Rural Employment Guarantee Yojana - 2005-6 - 100 days assured employment.


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