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Paper I
For short questions, these are the important sections in paper I:
• Sociology - The Discipline
• Scientific Study of Social Phenomena
• Techniques of data collection and analysis
• Economic System
• Political System
• Educational System
• Science & Technology

To prepare for the long questions in paper I, students are required to thoroughly prepare Pioneering contributions to Sociology. This includes

• Karl Marx: Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation and class struggle.
• Emile Durham: Division of labour, social fact, religion and society.
• Max Weber: Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
• Talcott Parsons: Social system, pattern variables.
• Robert K Merton: Latent and manifest functions, anomie, conformity and
deviance, reference groups.

While revising Pioneering contributions to Sociology', students need to focus on areas like socio-economic and political background, views of thinkers, their analysis, contemporary perspective and evolution.

The section on `Pioneering contributions to Sociology' is the most important part of paper I. It helps to understand the theoretical inferences of paper II. So, if you are thorough with this section, it will be easier for candidates to get a gist of sections like Social Stratification, Economic System, Political System, Educational System, Social Movements and Social Change and Development.

Candidates are required to understand argumentative aspect of thinkers like Karl Marx, Emile Durham, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Robert K Merton, with an eye to use their arguments in other sections of paper I. The theoretical inference of these thinkers need to be carried forward in paper II wherever required.

For long questions, students need to focus on topics such as Pioneering Contributions to Sociology, Marriage and Family, Social Stratification and Mobility, Political System, Social Movements and Social Change and Development. Students who can thoroughly focus on these sections are expected to answer 70% of queries in paper I. They should, however, have an overall view of the paper with focus on emerging trends like education, religion and economic developments.

Paper II 
While preparing for this paper, students should ensure that they should not confine their preparation in terms of different sections. They need to focus on interrelation between different topics. Students need to have an analytical eye with focus on continuity and change. Like, despite so many changes, why caste system is still prevalent in our country. Or, despite the break-up of the joint family system, the mentality of joint family still exists among Indians.

For short questions, the important sections are:
• Historical Moorings of the Indian Society
• Class Structure
• Marriage, Family and Kinship
• Education
• Political System
• Population Dynamics
• Social Movements
• Social Problems

For long questions, the important sections are:
• Caste System
• Class Structure
• Agrarian Social Structure
• Industry and Society
• Political Processes
• Tribal Societies
• Social Change
• Social Movements
• Women and Society

Apart from these, students need to keep an eye on sections like Caste System, Agrarian Social Structure and Tribal Societies. You can always have short or long questions from these three sections. Paper II actually works like mathematics and it is a high-scoring paper.

There are many topics in paper II, which seem to be essay-type. But in Sociology, they need to be approached through sociological perspectives. Suppose you are asked a question on poverty, this can have theoretical inferences. You need to give empirical or sociological or case studies examples to analyse the topics.

Writing Short questions: 
You need to directly start answering the question. Avoid flowery language with an eye on all perspectives while answering the question

Long questions:
Perspectives, which have been asked needs to be kept in view while answering the question. Theoretical dimension are to be substantiated with analysis.


Ram Ahuja: Society in India

Ram Ahuja: Social problems in India

IGNOU notes (especially for thinkers and topic on Indian system)

Caste its 20th Century Avatar - M.N. Srinivas

Participation as freedom - Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze

Y. Singh - Modernisation of Indian Tradition

Y. Singh - Social tradition in India

L.P. Vidhyarthi - Tribal India

Yojana (Independence day special 2001 on population)

Y. Singh - Social Change in India

Niel J. Smelser for Economy and Society

Abraham and Francis - Sociological theory

Sociology - T.B. Bottomore

Sociology - Harry M. Johnson

Sociology: An introduction and analysis - Maclver and Page

Handbook of sociology - Ogburn and Ninkoff

Social anthropology - Madan and Majumdar

Social Thought - Abraham and Morgan

Social structure - M.N. Srinivas

Dictionary of sociology - Dunean and Mitchel or Penguin



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