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Param Vir Chakra

The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration awarded for the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy, similar to the British Victoria Cross, US Medal of Honor, French Legion of Honor or Russian Cross of St. George.

The PVC was established on 26 January 1950 (the date of India becoming a republic), by the President of India, with effect from 15 August 1947 (the date of Indian independence). It can be awarded to officers or enlisted personnel from all branches of the Indian military.

It is the second highest award of the government of India after Bharat Ratna (amendment in the statute on 26 January 1980 resulted in this order of wearing).

The Ashoka Chakra is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy. The decoration may be awarded either to military or civilian personnel and may be awarded posthumously.


The medal was designed by Savitri Khanolkar(born Eva Yuonne Linda Maday-de-Maros to a Hungarian father and Russian mother) who was married to an Indian Army officer, Vikram Khanolkar.

The medal is a circular bronze disc 1.375 inches (3.49 cm) in diameter. The state emblem appears in the center, on a raised circle. Surrounding this, four replicas of Indra's Vajra (the all-powerful mythic weapon of the ancient Vedic King of Gods). The decoration is suspended from a straight swiveling suspension bar. It is named on the edge.

On the rear, around a plain center, are two legends separated by lotus flowers. The words Param Vir Chakra are written in Hindi and English.

A purple ribbon, 32 millimetres (1.3 in) long, holds the Param Vir Chakra. The medal symbolizes Rishi Dadhichi, who had donated his bones to the Gods for making Vajra. Some people claim that on back "It has an image of Shivaji's sword Bhavani on the other side", but that is a popular perpetuated myth. 

The Indian General Service Medal (1947) which contained the Bhavani sword was withdrawn later.


Name Date Place
Major Som Nath Sharma November 3, 1947 Badgam, Kashmir
Lance Naik Karam Singh October 13, 1948 Tithwal, Kashmir
Second Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane April 8, 1948 Naushera, Kashmir
Naik Jadu Nath Singh February 1948 Naushera, Kashmir
Company Havildar Major Piru Singh Shekhawat 17 July 1948–18 July 1948 Tithwal, Kashmir
Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria December 5, 1961 Elizabethville, Katanga, Congo
Major Dhan Singh Thapa October 20, 1962 Ladakh, India
Subedar Joginder Singh October 23, 1962 Tongpen La, Northeast Frontier Agency, India
Major Shaitan Singh November 18, 1962 Rezang La
Company Quarter Master Havildar Abdul Hamid September 10, 1965 Chima, Khem Karan Sector
Lieutenant-Colonel Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore October 15, 1965 Phillora, Sialkot Sector, Pakistan
Lance Naik Albert Ekka December 3, 1971 Gangasagar, Agartala Sector
Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon December 14, 1971 Srinagar, Kashmir
2/Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal December 16, 1971 Jarpal, Shakargarh Sector
Major Hoshiar Singh December 17, 1971 Basantar River, Shakargarh Sector
Naib Subedar Bana Singh June 23, 1987 Siachen Glacier, Jammu and Kashmir
Major Ramaswamy Parameshwaran November 25, 1987 Sri Lanka
Captain Manoj Kumar Pandey July 3, 1999 Khaluber/Juber Top, Batalik sector, Kargil area, Jammu and Kashmir
Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav July 4, 1999 Tiger Hill, Kargil area
Rifleman Sanjay Kumar July 5, 1999 Area Flat Top, Kargil Area
Captain Vikram Batra July 6, 1999 Point 5140, Point 4875, Kargil Area

Last updated on: 24/10/2019


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