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Environmental Impact Assessment


The environment impact process was introduced with the purpose of identifying /evaluating the potential beneficial and adverse impacts of development  projects on the environment, taking in to account environmental, social, cultural and aesthetic considerations. 

All of these considerations are critical to determine the viability of a project and to decide if a project should be granted environmental clearance.

An EIA concentrate on problems, conflicts and natural resource constraints  which might affect the viability of a project. 

It also predicts how the project could harm to people, their homeland, their livelihoods, and the other nearby developmental activities. 

After predicting potential impacts, the EIA identifies measures to minimize the impacts and suggests ways to improve the project viability.

Impact assessment was introduced in India in 1978 and now covers projects such as;
(a)
(i) river valley;
(ii) thermal power;
(iii) mining;
(iv) industries;
(v) atomic power;
(vi) rail, road, highways, bridges;
(vii) ports and harbours;
(viii) airports;
(ix) new towns and
(x) communication projects;

(b) those which require the approval of the Public Investment Board/Planning Commission/Central Electricity
Authority;

(c) those referred to the Ministry of Environment and Forests by other ministries;

(d) those which are sensitive and located in environmentally degraded areas;

(e) public sector undertakings of the Centre where the project cost is more than Rs 50 crore.


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