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Jammu & Kashmir


Jammu and Kashmir is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains.

Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, to the west and northwest respectively.

Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital.

Jammu and Kashmir is situated between 32° -15' and 37° -05' north latitude and 72° -35' and 83° -20' longitude East.

Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones.
  • First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt.
  • The second, hills including Shivalik ranges.
  • The third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and
  • The fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil.
According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained it off the water, making it a beautiful abode. But geologists have their own theory, which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on earth.

The State was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947, when the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October, 1947.

Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century B.C., which was later strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century.


Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.

Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which enjoys special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India according to which, no law enacted by the Parliament of India.

Jammu and Kashmir is also the only Indian state that has its own flag and constitution, and Indians from other states cannot purchase land or property in the state.

Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu and Kashmir features a plough on a red background symbolizing labour substituted the Maharaja's state flag. The three stripes represent the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.

Kashmir Valley is described as the paradise on earth.

Chashmashahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, Dachigam, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg and Amarnath shrine in the Valley, Vaishnodevi shrine and Patnitop near Jammu and Buddhist monasteries in Ladakh are important tourist destinations.

Ladakh festival on 15 September and Sindhu Darshan in June are popular events.

Jammu & Kashmir

Area 2,22,236 sq. km
Population 1,25,48,926
Capital Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)
Districts 14
Main Language Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri, Pahari, Punjabi, Ladakhi, Balti, Gojri and Dadri
Assembly seats 87
Lok Sabha seats 6
Rajya Sabha seats 4
State Day February 6


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