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Punjab


Punjab  is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region.
 
The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west, it is also bounded to the north by Jammu and Kashmir.

The state capital is Chandigarh.

The word Punjab is a combination of the Persian words  panj (five) and  āb (water), and thus the land of five rivers.

Among the world languages, Punjabi is the 11th most spoken language in the world.

The five rivers are the Beas, Sutlej, Ravi River, Chenab River and Jhelum River. Sometimes, in English, there can be a definite article before the name i.e. the Punjab. The name is also sometimes spelled as Panjab or Punjaab.
Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada.

Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Harrapa (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan). 

Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa.

After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan.

The Indian Punjab was divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh as well as the current state of Punjab. Punjab is the only state in India with a majority Sikh population.

The state bird of Punjab is the Baz (Eastern Goshawk) (Melierax poliopterus).

The state animal is the Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).

The state tree is the Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo)

Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab; it is the largest single provider of wheat to India.

Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, water meter, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilizers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar.

Punjab also has the largest number of Steel Rolling Mill Plants in India which are located in Steel Town Mandi Gobindgarh, District Fatehgarh Sahib.

The Sri Harmandir Sahib (or Golden Temple), is in the city of Amritsar.

The city of Taxila, founded by son of Taksh the son Bharat who was the brother of Ram. It was reputed to house the oldest university in the world, Takshashila University, one of the teachers was the great Vedic thinker and politician Chanakya. Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site.

It remains one of the largest per capita producers of wheat in the world.

The railway junction in Bhatinda is the largest in Asia.

Punjab at glance
Area 50,362 sq. km
Population 27,704,236
Capital Chandigarh
Districts 20
Main Language Punjabi
Assembly seats 117
Lok Sabha seats 13
Rajya Sabha seats 7
State Day November 1
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