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Internal Security

Indian Police

The Police force in the country is entrusted with the responsibility of maintenance of public order and prevention and detection of crimes. 

Public order and police being state subjects under the Constitution, police is maintained and controlled by States.

The Police force in State is headed by the Director General of Police/Inspector General of Police. 

State is divided into convenient territorial divisions called ranges and each police range is under the administrative control of a Deputy Inspector General of Police.

A number of districts constitute the range. District police is further sub-divided into police divisions, circles and police-stations. Besides the civil police, states also maintain their own armed police and have separate intelligence Branches, crime branches, etc.

Police set up in big cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Pune, etc. is directly under a Commissioner of Police who enjoys magisterial powers.

All senior police posts in various States are manned by the Indian Police Service (IPS) cadres, recruitment to which is made on All-India basis.

The Central Government maintains Central Police forces, Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Institutions for training of police officers and forensic science institutions to assist the states in gathering intelligence, in maintaining law and order, in investigating special crime cases and in providing raining to the senior police officers of the State governments.

Border Security Force

Border Security Force (BSF)  raised in 1965, is entrusted with the task of maintaining permanent vigilance on India's international borders.

The present strength of BSF is 157 battalions and guards a total of 6,385.36 km of international borders, spread over mountains, inhospitable deserts, riverine, snow bound and marshy areas.

BSF has been assigned the role of promoting a sense of security amongst the people living in the border areas and preventing trans-border crimes, such as smuggling, infiltration/exfiltration and other illegal activities.

Central Industrial Security Force

The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) - was established in 1969 to provide security to industrial undertakings of the government.

The Force numbering over 96,057 has the responsibility to protect and safeguard the industrial undertakings owned by the Central Government together with such installations as are specified as vital by the Government.

CISF is presently providing security cover to 267 public sector undertakings.

The security of 54 Airports and the Government buildings in Delhi together with such installations as specified vital has also been entrusted to the CISF. The CISF has launched security and fire protection consultancy services in 2001.

Central Reserve Police Force

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is an Armed Force of the Union of India for internal security management. 

This Force was raised in 1939 at Nimuch (MP) as the Crown Representative's Police and was renamed as the Central Reserve Police Force in 1949.

At present, CRPF has 191 Battalions including Rapid Action Force (RAF).

The Force remained committed to internal security and counter insurgency-cum-antiterrorist operations in various parts of the country.

This is a Force with ladies contingents organised in two Mahila Battalions.

National Security Guard

The National Security Guards (NSG) - modelled on the pattern of SAS of the UK and GSG-9 of Germany has been set up in 1984 for handling counter terrorists and counter hijacking operations including VIP security.

It is a highly trained and motivated force for effectively dealing with terrorist activities in the country.

It also trains state police commandos to upgrade their capability to meet the terrorist threats and carry out bomb detection/defusion operations.

The NSG maintains the only National Bomb Data Centre of the country. 

A counter terrorist operation was carried out by the commandos of NSG at Akshar Dham Temple, Ahmedabad in September 2002 and they were successful in eliminating the terrorists who took refuge in the temple complex.

NSG has been presented Presidential colour on 16 October 2004.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) - was raised on 21 October 1962 after the Chinese aggression as an integrated intelligence/signal/pioneer/engineering/medical and guerrilla unit and was initially placed under the Intelligence Bureau for operational control.

In 1975, the primary task of the ITBP was re-defined as security of northern borders, to check illegal immigration and trans-border crimes.

ITBP is given the responsibility of providing security/communication/medical cover to the pilgrims during Kailash-Mansarover Yatra besides being the Nodal Agency Disaster Management in the Central and Western Himalayan region.

The ITBP has 29 battalions including four specialist battalions.

Assam Rifles

The Assam Rifles  raised as Catchar Levy in 1835 is the oldest Police Force in the country. 

The force has 46 battalions. 

The force has a dual role of maintaining internal security in the North-Eastern region and guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border. 

The Assam Rifles contribution towards assimilation of the people of north-east into the national mainstream is truly monumental.

The force is fondly called "The Sentinels of the North-East" and "Friends of the Hill People."

State Police Services

The State Police Services, simply known as State Police or SPS are police services under the control of respective state governments of the States and territories of India.

The candidates selected for the SPS are usually posted as Deputy Superintendent of Police or Assistant Commissioner of Police once their probationary period ends.

On prescribed satisfactory service in the SPS, the officers are nominated to the Indian Police Service.

List of police ranks in India :

Ranks of Gazetted Officers :
  • Director Intelligence Bureau (post held by senior most Indian Police Service officer; not a rank)
  • Commissioner of Police (State) or Director General of Police
  • Special Commissioner of Police or Additional Director General of Police
  • Joint Commissioner of Police or Inspector General of Police
  • Additional Commissioner of Police or Deputy Inspector General of Police
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police or Superintendent of Police
  • Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police or Additional Superintendent of Police
  • Assistant Commissioner of Police or Deputy Superintendent of Police
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 2 years of service)
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 1 year of service)

Ranks of Non-Gazetted Officers :

  • Inspector of Police
  • Sub-Inspector of Police
  • Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police
  • Police Head Constable
  • Senior Police Constable
  • Police Constable


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