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2013 - August 11 to 13 - Current Affairs


International Issues


International Youth Day is an awareness day designated by the United Nations to be observed on 12th August every year. This year’s observance of International Youth Day focuses on the issue of youth migration. 

The theme for 2013 is Youth Migration: Moving Development Forward. The United Nations General Assembly on 17 December 1999 declared the 12 August as the International Youth Day by endorsing UN resolution 54/120. 

About the theme: Young people make up a significant share of the global number of international migrants. In 2010, there were an estimated 27 million international young migrants. While migration can often offer valuable opportunities and contribute to the development of communities and society at large, it can also pose risks and lead to unacceptable situations, including discrimination and exploitation. 

The 2013 observance of International Youth Day will raise awareness of the opportunities and risks associated with youth migration, share knowledge and information stemming from recent research and analysis on this topic, and engage young people in discussions on their migration experiences. 



13 August was designated as the International Lefthanders Day by The Left-Handers Club. First International Lefthanders Day annual event was observed on 13 August 1992. 

Objective of the Day:
• The objective of this day is promotion of the awareness regarding the inconveniences faced by left-handers in a largely right-handed world.
• On this day, the uniqueness as well as differences of Lefthanders is celebrated. It is important to note that Lefthanders comprise of seven to ten percent of the world's population. Lefthanders are discriminated by a lot of people in the world.
• They are also forced to drive on right side of road as well as use right handed tools. International Lefthanders Day is meant to put an end to discrimination against the Lefthanders.
• It is very crucial to understand that this day is also targeted towards the left-handed kids. Left-handed people have greater chances of developing schizophrenia than right-handers. 

History of the International Lefthanders Day:

The Left-Handers Club launched the first annual event of this day on 13 August 1992. The aim of the event was to allow left-handers to celebrate their difference as well as increase the awareness of public towards advantages and disadvantages of being the lefties. The event is now celebrated across the world. In UK alone, there are more than 20 regional events for marking the day.

On this day activities such as, left-handed tea parties, left-v-right sports matches, pubs using left-handed corkscrews as well as pub games with the left hand only are performed. The events like these help in creating awareness about the difficulties faced by the left-handers. 

About the Left-Handers Club:

Formation of the Left-Handers Club took place in the year 1990. The aim of the club was to remain in contact with left-handers and allow the members of the club to know about the developments related to them. The club helped in providing advice as well as help to them by acting as a bridge between them and the manufacturers of the products. The club promoted research in development of new left-handed items as well as development of such items. 



The Melia brand of hotels of Majorca, Spain, in the third week of August 2013 unveiled the new Social Wave House (also called new Sol Wave House) in vacation resort island of Majorca as the first Twitter Hotel of the world. The unique feature of the hotel is that it amalgamates the real as well as virtual worlds for creating a completely new experience. 


National Issues


Maharashtra State Government on 7 August 2013 became the first state in the country to disburse salary of its staff through their Aadhaar-linked bank accounts. The employees of the state government’s Information Technology (IT) department got their July 2013 salaries through their Aadhaar-linked bank accounts. 

Maharashtra State Government has decided to use the Aadhaar Payment Bridge (APB) system for all Mantralaya employees. This initiative would help in speedy transfer of salaries and also ensure the transfer to the actual beneficiary at a later stage. UID for faster Salary State Government of Maharashtra initiated a program “UID for faster Salary” for its employees in the state. 

The objective is to process salaries only for those employees, who are enrolled under Aadhaar program. 

Aadhaar is the Unique Identification (UID) project was launched nationwide in Tembhli, a tribal village in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra on 29th Sept, 2010 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi. The first resident to receive an AADHAAR was Ranjana Sonawane of Tembhli village. 



The Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL), on 10 August 2013, operationalised the largest blast furnace of India, called Durga, at the SAIL Rourkela Steel Plant. The blast furnace will help in increasing the hot metal capacity of SAIL by 2.5 million tonnes in a year. The hot metal capacity will become 4.5 million tonnes per annum. 

Durga is built at the approximate cost of 1600 crore Rupees. The volume of the furnace is 4060 cubic metres. The blast furnace is absolutely environment-friendly and ensures minimum emissions. It also has the capability of recovering waste energy to the complete potential. It also has the closed-loop cooling system which leads to zero water discharge. 

About Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL):
• Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) is the largest steel producing company of India.
• It has the turnover of 49350 crore Rupees.
• It is also among the Maharatna companies of India’s Central Public Sector Enterprises.
• SAIL has five integrated steel plants, three special plants, and one subsidiary in different parts of India. 



A modern and sophisticated breast milk bank was inaugurated on 7 August 2013 at the state-run Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial Hospital (SSKM) by West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. This novel scheme was launched to cater to the basic needs of a child who is just born, but does not get the milk from the mother or when the mother dies after giving birth to the child. 

About Breast Milk Bank

• The breast milk bank would help specially to non-lactating mothers. The stored milk can be used to feed babies whose mothers fall ill during the six-month lactating period after pregnancy.
• Breast milk donor mothers are women whose premature infants are admitted to the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), pregnant women who deliver their babies at SSKM and even expectant mothers who do not deliver their babies at the hospital but are admitted to the outpatient department.
• The milk bank will also be an option for those mothers who have adopted children, possess insufficient milk glands and have an history of past breast surgery or cancer. 

The bank was being funded by the National Health Renewal Mission. This is the country's second breast milk bank, the first being established in Mumbai on 27 November 1989. The concept of such milk banks is quite popular in the UK, United States of America and Sweden. Such facilities also come to the rescue of abandoned babies and those born premature. 



The first Cyber Forensic Laboratory (CFL) of India was established in Tripura on 11 August 2013. The lab was established at the Tripura High Court and the purpose of the lab is to facilitate information related to court cases. The CFL was inaugurated by Supreme Court judge Justice Madan B. Lokur. 

Features of the Cyber Forensic Laboratory (CFL): 

• The CFL would offer automatic SMS alert to not just the lawyers, but also the litigants regarding the details of the court case. In case, the petitioner or the lawyer is absent on the day of trial, SMS alert would go to the concerned parties through the CFL. 

• CFL would facilitate decentralisation of the legal services in India. 

• As a part of CFL, the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) will also be developed under the supervision of the Supreme Court. The information related to the legal services, judicial actions as well as the court cases will be available through NJDG. NJDG would be operationalised by January 2014. 

• CFL is the part of e-court programme. The training regarding this new system would be given to thousands of judicial officials. 

As of now, 13000 judicial officers, which also include the judges, have already been trained about e-court system. As a part of the modernisation, video conferencing systems are also being expanded in India. Under the video conferencing system, any lawyer or judge will be able to talk to the accused who is lodged in the jails. 

The e-court programme in India was first introduced in the year 2007 when Justice Madan B. Lokur pioneered video conferencing systems between the Tihar jail and Delhi High Court. Also, 140 district courts in India out of 620 have their own websites for providing information related to the cases. E-court schemes of all kinds facilitate faster disposal of pending cases in the courts. It is important to know that the states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura got their individual high courts in March 2013. All the seven northeastern states- Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Assam were formerly under the Gauhati High Court with benches in the state capitals. Sikkim had its own separate high court. 



The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Government of India on 12 August 2013 signed an agreement for 300 million US dollars in additional loan to upgrade 254 kilometers of severely deteriorated highways in northern and southern Bihar. The additional financing for the Bihar State Highways-II Project, which is already under implementation, will widen existing sections of four highways to two lanes, build and maintain bridges, and strengthen pavement. This should optimize access to the state highway network for beneficiaries living in remote villages. 

Better roads built under the project will help more people access social and health services as well as production centres and markets, and therefore will promote better life and inclusive growth for the people of Bihar. This project will also use a 1 million US dollars grant to prepare a 20-year road master plan for Bihar state. This should help the national and state governments achieve their vision of improving the lives of its people by providing an efficient transport system. 

ADB has supported Bihar’s State Highway Development Program through assistance to Bihar State Highways Project-I (420 million US dollars, closed in July, 2012) followed by Project-II (300 million US dollars, signed in December, 2010). Together the projects are rehabilitating 1209 km of state highways. 

The project will also focus on improving the road design that will help address future flooding. To offset carbon emissions, the project will plant 10 trees for every individual tree cut for road widening. Solar panels will be used at construction sites to sequester carbon and reduce carbon emissions.Those living near the roads will also receive road safety training. Women will be actively involved.The total cost of the project – due to be completed by October, 2017 – is 375 million US dollars, with the Government of Bihar providing75 million US dollars. 

TA 8170-IND: Road Master Plan for Bihar’s State Highway Development is associated to this project. The TA will support the state government’s sector development initiatives, especially for preparing of a 20-year strategic master plan for developing Bihar’s state highways, including long-term vision and goals, an action program, a financing plan, and a monitoring and evaluation system with performance indicators and targets. The TA is closing in December, 2014. 


Economic Issues


As per the data released by Ministry of Commerce and Industry on 12 August 2013, India's exports in July 2013 were valued at 25834.46 million US dollars. 

Exports (including re-exports): Exports during July, 2013 were valued at 25834.46 million US dollars (154426.51 crore rupees) which was 11.64 per cent higher in Dollar terms (20.25 per cent higher in Rupee terms) than the level of 23140.43 million US dollars (128417.33 crore rupees) during July, 2012. Cumulative value of exports for the period April-July 2013 -14 was 98290.13 million US dollars (559531.29 crore rupees) as against US $ 96632.20 million US dollars (526301.34 crore rupees) registering a growth of 1.72 per cent in Dollar terms and growth of 6.31 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year. 

Imports: Imports during July, 2013 were valued at 38102.56 million US dollars (227759.60 crore rupees) representing a negative growth of 6.20 per cent in Dollar terms and growth of 1.04 per cent in Rupee terms over the level of imports valued at 40619.45 million US dollars (225416.80 crore rupees) in July, 2012. Cumulative value of imports for the period April-July, 2013-14 was 160738.29 million US dollars ( 911927.33 crore rupees) as against 156327.95 million US dollars (851289.60 crore rupees) registering a growth of 2.82 per cent in Dollar terms and growth of 7.12 per cent in Rupee terms over the same period last year. 

Crude Oil and Non-Oil Imports: Oil imports during July, 2013 were valued at 12709.4 million US dollars which was 8.02 per cent lower than oil imports valued at 13816.9 million US dollars in the corresponding period last year. Oil imports during April-July, 2013-14 were valued at 54584.3 million US dollars which was 2.65 per cent higher than the oil imports of 53174.3 million US dollars in the corresponding period last year. Non-oil imports during July, 2013 were estimated at 25393.2 million US dollars which was 5.26 per cent lower than non-oil imports of 26802.6 million US dollars in July, 2012. Non-oil imports during April-July, 2013-14 were valued at 106154.0 million US dollars which was 2.9 per cent higher than the level of such imports valued at 103153.6 million US dollars in April-July, 2012-13. 

Trade Balance: The trade deficit for April-July, 2013-14 was estimated at 62448.16 million US dollars which was higher than the deficit of 59695.75 million US dollars during April-July, 2012-13. 


Sports


Shree Ganeshan Chundan, the snake boat of the St Francis Boat Club, Harippad won the 61st edition of the Nehru Trophy Boat Race 2013 on 9 August 2013 that was held in Punnamada Lake in Alleppey (Alappuzha), Southern Kerala. This is the second consecutive win of Shree Ganeshan that was captained by Arunkumar, Karthikapally. In 2012, it was captained by Jiji Jacob Pollayil under Freedom Boat Club, Kainakary. Jawahar Thayankeri and Anari Chundan were placed at the second and third positions, respectively. 

After the win, Ganeshan was honoured with the silver trophy that was donated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1952 with his signature embossed on it. 

A total of 22 chundans (snake boats) and 41 other country boats participated in the race. The race was inaugurated by Governor of Kerala, Nikhil Kumar and Union Tourism Minister K. Chiranjeevi was the Chief Guest on the occasion. 

About the Nehru Trophy Boat Race: 

The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is conducted every year on the second Saturday of August. The tradition of the boat race started in 1952 after the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru visited the area. During his visit, the villagers held an unprepared boat race to honour his visit in the area. Nehru donated a silver trophy to the winners of the race and since then the competition has been named by his name. 

The central attraction of the contest remains the snake boats, which are locally known as Chundan Vallam, which means Beaked Boat. Snake boats have been named following its structure that is long and narrow in shape and 36 to 42 meter in its length. The best thing about the boat is that one hundred oarsmen pull the boat in water. The vessel is steered by four key helmsmen and it also has a team of musicians that fulfill the role of floating cheerleaders, as they sing boat songs that are set on the rhythm of the stroke and drumbeats. 

For the first time, women participated in the race with four men rowing support in the 2012, Nehru Trophy Boat Race. 



Serena Williams defeated Romania's Sorana Cirstea 6-2 6-0 in the final match of women's Rogers Cup on 11 August 2013. With this, she captured her 54th WTA singles title. The Rogers Cup was held at Rexall Centre, Toronto from 3 August 2013 to 11 August 2013. Serena Williams won the Rogers Cup for the third time.



Sagarika Ghosh on 11 August 2013 won the Cadet Girls singles title while Birdie Boro had to be satisfied with a silver in the Cadet Boys singles at the Guatemala Junior and Cadet Open Table Tennis championships. Birdie Boro lost 9-11, 8-11, 5 -11 to Cuban Livan Martinez in the final of the boys singles event. Earlier, Boro had beaten teammate Anirban Ghosh 3-0 to enter the final. 

Sagarika, the winner of South Asian Junior title recently, defeated Sreeja 11-6, 11-5, 11-8 in the final to take gold. She had won the South Asian Junior title recently. 



Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt won the 100 metre sprint title at the 14th IAAF World Championships 2013, Moscow on 11 August 2013. Olympic champion, Usain Bolt clocked a season's best 9.77 seconds at the Luzhniki Stadium Moscow, with American Justin Gatlin claiming silver and Nesta Carter of Jamaica, taking bronze. Earlier Usain Bolt won 100 metre title in World championship at Berlin in 2009. 

In 2011’s World Championship at South Korea, he was disqualified due to a false start and Yohan Blake of Jamaica won the gold in the 100 metre sprint event. This gold medal is a fourth individual World Championship title for Usain Bolt. Usain Bolt also won the gold medals in 100 metre sprint at Beijing-2008 and London- 2012 Olympics. 



India's shuttler P V Sindhu has settled for a bronze medal in women’s singles category at the BWF World Championships 2013 after suffering a straight-game defeat against world number three Ratchanok Inthanon in the semifinals in Guangzhou, China on 10 August 2013. 

World number 12 P V Sindhu, playing in her maiden World Championships, had recorded stunning victories against two Chinese players in the run-up to the semifinals but she failed to out it cross Ratchanok, going down 10-21 13-21 in a 36- minute women's singles match. 

PV Sindhu is also became the third badminton player to win a medal in World Badminton Championship. Prakash Padukone won the men's singles bronze in 1983 while Jwala Gutta and Ashwini Ponnappa won bronze in women's doubles in 2011. 

The final results of BWF World Championships 2013:

Women's singles :
1. Ratchanok Intanon- Gold Medal- Thailand 
2. Li Xuerui- Silver Medal- China 
3. Bae Yeon Ju- Bronze Medal- Korea 
4. P V Sindhu- Bronze Medal- India 

Women’s Doubles :
1. Wang Xiaoli & Yu Yang – Gold Medal- China 
2. Eom Hye-Won & Jang Ye-Na- Silver Medal- Korea 

Men’s singles :
1. Lin Dan – Gold Medal- China 
2. Lee Chong Wei – Silver Medal- Malaysia 

Men’s Doubles :
1. Mohammad Ahsan & Hendra Setiawan – Gold Medal- Indonesia 
2. Mathias Boe & Carsten Mogensen- Silver Medal- Denmark 

Mixed doubles :
1. Tontowi Ahmad & Liliyana Natsir – Gold Medal- Indonesia 
2. Ma Jin & Xu Chen- Silver Medal- China 



Indian player Sowjanya Bavisetti has won 10000 dollar the Internalional Tennis Federation (ITF) Women's Tennis Tournament in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt on 11 August 2013. The unseeded Indian player defeated Anastasia Kharchenko of Ukraine, who was seeded third, in straight sets. Sowjanya had an easy going in the first set which she won by dropping just one game (6-1) in the singles final. The six-all of second set deadlock was resolved in tie-breaker and the Indian player managed to win at 7-6 (1). 

About ITF Women's Circuit: 

• The ITF Women's Circuit is a series of professional tennis tournaments run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) for female professional tennis players. 

• The ITF Women’s Circuit provides entry level tournaments enabling players to eventually reach the WTA Tour. 

• The ITF Women’s Circuit offers some 400 tournaments in 60 countries worldwide and has six prize money levels: 10000, 15000, 25000, 50000, 75000 and 100000 US dollars. 



India won six medals at the 7th Asian Junior Wushu Championships which concluded in Manila, Philippines which concluded on 13 August 2013. India won one silver medal and five bronze medals in the Asian Junior Wushu Championships. A total of 22 countries participated in the Championships. 

Mahipal Singh (75kg) won the silver medal. He lost against Iran in the final match. The bronze medals came in Sanshou event. 

The winners of the bronze medals were Neha Kashyap (48kg), Kiwlani Brhma (56kg) and Naveen Jatin (80kg). In the Taolu Chanquan individual category, Jyoti Kumari bagged the bronze and T Arita Devi won the bronze in Nanquan Taolu event. 

About the Asian Junior Wushu Championships: 

• Asian Junior Wushu Championships take place after every two years. 

• The seventh edition of the Asian Junior Wushu Championships took place from 6 August 2013 to 13 August 2013 in Manila, Philippines. In the competition, two events were included- Taolu and Sanda. 

• The venue of the event was Makati Coliseum, Makati, Philippines. 

• Wushu is actually an exhibition as well as full-contact sport which is derivative of Chinese martial arts. 

• Wushu was developed primarily in China and in Chinese it means Martial Arts. 

• Taolu and Sanda are the two disciplines of competitive Wushu. 


Defence


India on 12 August 2013 successfully test-fired indigenously-developed nuclear-capable surface-to-surface Prithvi-II missile from a military base in Odisha. The ballistic missile with a range of 350 km was fired from launch complex number three of the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur-on-sea in Balasore district off Odisha coast. 

Prithvi-II missile was launched by the personnel of the Strategic Force Command (SFC) from ITR’s Launch Complex-III as part of routine user training. The missile scientists of the Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) monitored the launch operations. 

The missile was tracked by the radars, telemetry stations and electro-optical systems along the East Coast. All the systems incorporated in the missile worked to perfection and it zeroed in on the pre-designated target in the Bay of Bengal. 

The Prithvi-II missile is already inducted into the Indian Armed forces. It has been developed by the DRDO. 

Fact-sheet on Prithvi-II Missile: 

• Prithvi is the first missile to be developed under India's prestigious Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). 

• It is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1000 kg of warheads. 

• It is thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engines, uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory. The last users trial of Prithvi-II was successfully carried out from the same base on 20 December 2012. 



India on 12 August 2013 launched its first ever indigenously designed and built aircraft carrier INS Vikrant in Kochi. As per the ship launching tradition, the ship was launched by Elizabeth Antony, the wife of Defence Minister, A.K.Antony. A strong and vigilant Navy is needed to keep the coast line, island territories and sea lanes of communication open in the interest of the nation. 

Indian Navy must continue to maintain high operational readiness at all times, to ward off any likely misadventures against our national interests. It should have the capability and technology, to match the best in the world. 

It was truly a historic moment for both the country's ship building industry and the Indian Navy as the first Indigenously built Aircraft Carrier INS Vikrant was launched at the Cochin Shipyard. The launch has catapulted the country into a select group of nations with the capability to design and build such massive aircraft carriers. Major outfitting work of the vessel is scheduled to be completed by 2016.

INS Vikrant has a length of 260 metres and it is 60 metres wide.It is behind schedule by three years. Vikrant is scheduled for extensive trials in 2016 before being inducted into the Navy by 2018 end. 



Nuclear Reactor of India’s indigenous nuclear-powered submarine, Arihant went critical on 10 August 2013 at 1.20 a.m. With this success, India became a member of the exclusive club of countries that have built their own nuclear powered submarines along with Russia, US, UK, China and France. 

The reactor of Arihant achieved criticality, when the boat was in the sea. Criticality is a technical term that is used to describe the first step, towards self-sustaining nuclear reaction for stable production of power. 

About Arihant: 

• Arihant means destroyer of enemies in Sanskrit is an Indian submarine, which is 111 meter long, 11 broad and 15 meter tall. 

• Arihant has won India a status of the nation that has blue water navy, who can travel far and wide into the sea after the nuclear reactor fitted to it went critical 

• It has been engineered for being propelled by a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), which uses enriched uranium as fuel and generate 80 MW energy. A Pressurized Water Power Reactor that is a similar to that if the one used in Arihant reactor is being used to train the naval officers at Kalpakkam. Earlier India trained the naval officers with a nuclear powered submarine Chakra from 1988 to 1991 that was leased from Russia. 

Challenges Faced by Scientists in Creation of the nuclear-powered submarine:

• As per the scientists, who worked on the project, the biggest challenge for them was to fit the reactor into the submarine by making it compact enough, as its necessary to maintain the stability of the reactor at the time, when the submarine accelerates into in the depths of the ocean. K-15 underwater fired missiles with nuclear warheads will be fitted with the submarine. each missile will be 10 meter long and weigh 6.3 tonnes. These missiles can hit the targets at a distance of 700 kilometers when the submarine is 20 kilometers under the water. Construction of Arihant, the nuclear-powered submarine of India (details from the side of head to tail) 

• The head of the submarine is fitted with a SONAR (Sound Navigation and Ranging), it is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate and detect objects under and above water. It is used as a means of acoustic location. 

• Just after the SONAR, a living room has been created followed by a space that will held the torpedoes and land attack missiles, followed by a Control Room, a Gallery Kitchen, Missile Tubes (this will act as a combat management system), a Periscope, Nuclear Reactor, Turbine, Electric Motor and Propeller shaft. 

History behind the creation of the Nuclear Submarine:

• For the first time, the former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi in 1970 asked DRDO, BARC and others to create a Nuclear Submarine. But the first hush-hush Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) of India began in 1990s. 

• On 26 July 2009, India launched its first ATV, INS Arihant in the water 

• In 2012 India took on lease nuclear powered INS Chakra from Russia for 10 years. Due to international non-proliferation treaty, it didn't had nuclear tipped missiles 

With the success of the technical aspects, the Arihant will be sent for an extensive sea-based acceptance trials into the open waters. In next 18 months, the trials will include firing of K-15 missiles to a range of 700 kilometer. Indian DRDO has also designed a special group of under-water missiles named K-4 that can hit the targets at a distance of 3000 kilometers. 

A nuclear powered submarine can operate deep inside the sea for more than a month, whereas, the problem with the submarines powered with fuel like electricity or diesel can last for few days deep into the water. The electricity or diesel based submarines need to surface itself for recharging the batteries and to get oxygen. To shore up its second strike capability, India is developing three more nuclear-powered submarines at Vizag, Visakhapatnam. Brazil is a country that is working on the naval nuclear propulsion technology. The nuclear powered submarine, Arihant came up after making a 25 years long effort in the technically challenging area. 


Persons


Noted Rajasthani folk musician Sakar Khan, an exponent of the melodious bow and string instrument Kamaicha, passed away in Jaisalmer on 10 August 2013. 



Zafar Futehally, (93 years) India’s best known naturalist and ornithologist passed away on 11 August 2013 at Kihim in Maharashtra. 



Ibrahim Boubacar Keita won Mali's Presidential elections on 12 August 2013 after his opponent Soumalia Cisse conceded defeat before official results were announced. Soumalia Cisse's concession allows Mali to avoid a protracted election fight and to move ahead with establishing a democratically elected government, one of the international community's caveats for unlocking some 4 billion US dollars in promised aid.


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