Daily Current Affairs - 18 to 20 January 2016


International


India’s Dinesh Sharma on 17 January 2016 was elected to the 12-member board of directors of the China-sponsored Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).  It is the first Board of Directors of AIIB in which 57 nations are founding members including India. The inaugural meeting of the board of the governors of the AIIB was held in Beijing. The meeting approved by-laws, rules and codes of conduct for the bank. Union Finance Minister of India Arun Jaitley is the designated governor of the AIIB from the country. AIIB holds authorised capital of 100 billion US dollars and subscribed capital of 50 billion US dollars. It will invest in sectors including energy, transportation, urban construction and logistics as well as education and healthcare. 

China is the largest shareholder with 26.06 percent voting shares. India is the second largest shareholder with 7.5 percent followed by Russia with 5.93 percent and Germany with 4.5 percent. On 16 January 2016, Chinese President Xi Jinping launched AIIB, which is seen as a rival to the US-led World Bank, in Beijing. Despite opposition from Washington, US allies including Australia, Britain, German, Italy, the Philippines and South Korea have agreed to join the AIIB in recognition of China's growing economic influence. 

About Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: 
• The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is an international financial institution that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region. 
• The bank was proposed as an initiative by the Government of China, supported by 37 regional and 20 non-regional Prospective Founding Members, all of which have signed the Articles of Agreement that form the legal basis for the proposed bank. 
• The capital of the bank is 100 billion US dollars, which is equivalent to two-third of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank. 



The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) on 18 January 2016 released the World Tourism Barometer, which reviewed trends in tourism at the regional and global level for 2015 and enumerated prospects for 2016. As per the publication, international tourist arrivals grew by 4.4 percent in 2015 to reach a total of 1184 million in 2015. In numbers, around 50 million more travelers were recorded in 2015 compared to that 2014. 

Highlights of World Tourism Barometer: 
• 2015 marks the 6th consecutive year of above-average growth, with international arrivals increasing by 4 percent or more every year since the post-crisis year of 2010. 
• The tourist arrivals, in 2015, were largely influenced by exchange rates, oil prices and natural and manmade crises in many parts of the world. 
• Growth in advanced economy destinations (5 percent growth) exceeded that of emerging economies (4 percent), boosted by the solid results of Europe (5 percent). 
• By region, Europe, the Americas and Asia and the Pacific all recorded around 5 percent growth in 2015. 
• Arrivals to the Middle East increased by 3 percent, while in Africa points to an estimated 3 percent decrease mostly due to weak results in North Africa, which accounts for over one third of arrivals in the region. 
• Results from the UNWTO Confidence Index remain largely positive for 2016, though at a slightly lower level as compared to the previous two years. • Based on the current trend and this outlook, UNWTO projects international tourist arrivals to grow by 4 percent worldwide in 2016. 
• Among the world’s top source markets, China, with double-digit growth in expenditure every year since 2004, continues to lead global outbound travel. 
• Expenditure from the United States , the world’s second largest source market, and the United Kingdom, the third largest, was boosted by a strong currency and rebounding economy. 



Oxfam on 18 January 2016 released a report titled "An Economy for the 1%." The report analysed growing trends of concentration of wealth across the world and suggested remedies to correct the anomaly. Further, the report was named as such by taking a cue from the report of Credit Suisse, a global financial services company, which revealed that the richest 1 percent had accumulated more wealth than the rest of the world put together. 

Highlights of the report: 
• In 2015, just 62 individuals had the same wealth as 3.6 billion people – the bottom half of humanity. This figure is down from 388 individuals as recently as 2010. 
• The wealth of the richest 62 people has risen by 44 percent in the five years since 2010 – that's an increase of more than half a trillion dollars (542 billion US dollars) to 1.76 trillion US dollars. 
• The wealth of the bottom half fell by just over a trillion dollars in the same period (2010-15) – a drop of 41 percent. 
• Since the turn of the century, the poorest half of the world’s population has received just 1 percent of the total increase in global wealth, while half of that increase has gone to the top 1 percent. 
• The average annual income of the poorest 10 percent of people in the world has risen by less than 3 dollars each year in almost a quarter of a century. Their daily income has risen by less than a single cent every year. 


National


The Goa Legislative Assembly on 15 January 2016 approved reclassification of coconut tree as palm. The reclassification was approved by the legislature through the passage of the Goa Preservation of Trees (Amendment) Bill, 2016. The bill seeks to omit the Section 1-A of the Goa, Daman and Diu Preservation of Trees Act, 1984. The section, which was inserted through an amendment in 2008, included coconut under the definition of tree. 

Further, to facilitate the reclassification, the bill also amended the Section 12-A of the Act incorporating changes into the definition of tree. As per the new definition, tree means any woody plant whose branches spring from and are supported upon the trunk or the body and whose trunk or body is not less than ten centimeters in diameter at a height of one meter from the ground level. In the original act, the width of the trunk or body was mentioned as not less than five centimeters in diameter and height as thirty centimeters from the ground. 



Biodiversity Finance Initiative(BIOFIN) was in news in the third week of January 2016 as the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change held the first national stakeholder consultation meeting on the BIOFIN (Biodiversity Finance Initiative). The meeting was organized to understand the BIOFIN project and to seek professional inputs from experts of various fields in strengthening the biodiversity conservation efforts in the country. BIOFIN is a global partnership seeking to address the biodiversity finance challenge in a comprehensive manner. Its purpose is to mobilise resources for biodiversity and sustainable development across the world. 

Features of BIOFIN:
• It helps countries to scale up their efforts and achieve the 20 Aichi Targets defined in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan for 2011-2020. 
• It was launched by the United National Development Programme (UNDP) in October 2012. 
• Its focus is on building a sound business case for increased investment in the management of ecosystems and biodiversity, with a particular focus on the needs and transformational opportunities at the national level. 
• It works along two main axes-Globally-led development of a new methodological framework and adaptation and implementation of this framework at national level. 
• BIOFIN is managed by the UNDP Ecosystems and Biodiversity Programme and supported by the European Union and the Governments of Germany, Switzerland, Norway and Flanders. The Global Environment Facility is a further partner financing parallel in-country projects. 
 • As of January 2015, BIOFIN’s total budget is 28 million US dollars and the total number of core participating countries is 29. 
• While discussions are ongoing in several countries to formally join, the following 19 countries are already fully engaged: Botswana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Fiji, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Seychelles, South Africa, Thailand, Uganda and Zambia. Further countries can be supported as additional resources are leveraged. 



Sikkim was on 18 January 2016 declared as the first organic farming state of India. The declaration was made by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi while inaugurating the Sikkim Organic Festival 2016 in Gangtok, Sikkim. Besides making the declaration, the Prime Minister also handed over the Organic Certificate to Sikkim Chief Minister Pawan Chamling. On this occasion, he also launched three new orchid species developed in Sikkim. 

The new species are: 
• Cymbidium Sardar (after Sardar Patel) 
• Cymbidium Deen Dayal (after Deen Dayal Upaddhyay) 
• Cymbidium Namo (after Narendra Modi) .

The Sikkim Organic Festival 2016 was held on the sidelines of the 2-day long National Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Farmers Welfare that began on 17 January 2016. The conference was attended by agricultural scientists, State Agriculture Ministers, Agriculture Production Commissioners and Agriculture Secretaries among others. During the conference, the participants discussed important issues on agriculture and made a presentation before the Prime Minister. 



The Union Government on 18 January 2016 decided to institute a new award category under the National Film Awards titled "The Most Film Friendly State/UT." The new award will be conferred for the first time at the 63rd National Film Awards to be held on 3 May 2016. 

The decision to create a new category of award was taken as part of the government’s effort to promote the Indian film industry and India’s Soft Power. Besides, in a bid to promote India as a filming destination and facilitate film making, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry (I&B) also decided to set up a film facilitation office at the NFDC premises under the supervision of the Ministry. The decision was taken after the ministry's meeting with filmmakers, including national award-winner Shyam Benegal. 



In a global first, the World Bank in third week of January 2016 decided to extend an assistance of 20 million US dollar to help reconstruct the Indira Gandhi Zoological Park (IGZP), which got devastated during cyclone Hudhud in October 2014, in Visakhapatnam. It is the very first time in the history of the World Bank that it is directly involved in a zoo. The decision is a new addition in the portfolio of the bank as part of its ever-expanding work on urban regeneration. 

The funding is a part of the 370 million US dollar Andhra Pradesh Disaster Recovery Project for which the bank is extending assistance of 250 million US dollars from 2015-2020. The four coastal districts of Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and East Godavari are expected to get 20 million US dollar for forest restoration and disaster prevention measures. 



Clean energy firm ReNew Power Ventures on 18 January 2016 announced the commissioning of 40 megawatt wind power project in Karnataka. With this, the total wind capacity commissioned by ReNew Power has reached 693 megawatts and in Karnataka, it raised to 68.4 megawatts from earlier 28.4 megawatts. It commissioned first of its kind wind project at Bhesada, Rajasthan. 

It installed tallest Hybrid Towers in India for the first time with 30 meters higher than conventional towers. A lattice / tubular tower combination of 120 meters height from S97 series of Suzlon has been set up on-shore (at Nani Ber district of Kutch, Gujarat) in the world for the first time. 



Union Ministry of Finance on 18 January 2016 released the draft report of Justice R V Easwar (Retd) Committee to simplify the provisions of Income-tax Act, 1961. The draft recommendations of the 10-member committee contain 27 suggestions for amendments under the Income-tax Act, 1961 and 8 recommendations for reform through administrative instructions. 



The Union Ministry of Shipping on 19 January 2016 started Project Green Ports, which will help in making the Major Ports across India cleaner and greener. 

Project Green Ports will have two verticals: 
• Green Ports Initiatives 
• Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan. 

Features of Green Port Initiatives:
It includes twelve initiatives which will be implemented under strict time bound fashion in order to achieve the targets. 

Some of these initiatives are: 
• Preparation and monitoring plan 
• Acquiring equipments required for monitoring environmental pollution 
• Acquiring dust suppression system 
• Setting up of sewage/waste water treatment plants/ garbage disposal plant 
• Setting up projects for energy generation from renewable energy sources 
• Completion of shortfalls of Oil Spill Response (OSR) facilities (Tier-1) 
• Prohibition of disposal of almost all kind of garbage at sea, improving the quality of harbour wastes etc. 

Features of Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan:
The Ministry has identified 20 activities with certain time-line to promote cleanliness at the port premises. Some of the activities include: 
• Cleaning the wharf 
• Cleaning and repairing of sheds 
• Cleaning and repairing of port roads 
• Painting road signs, zebra crossing, pavement edges 
• Modernizing and cleanliness of all the toilet complexes in the operational area 
• Placement of dustbins at regular intervals 
• Beautification and cleaning of parks 
• Putting boards indicating cleanliness messages 
• Cleaning and repairing of all drainages and storm water systems 
• Tree plantation In order to achieve these objectives, regular training will be provided to the staff in order to generate awareness and inculcate a positive attitude towards keeping the environment clean and green. 



The Bihar Cabinet on 19 January 2016 formally approved 35 percent reservation for women in all government jobs in the state. The decision was taken in the cabinet meeting presided by Chief Minister Nitish Kumar. The 35 percent reservation for women will be applicable to in all government jobs including reserved and unreserved category. 

The Bihar Government is already providing 35 percent reservation for women in recruitment as police constables and sub-inspectors and 50 percent reservation as primary school teachers and in the Panchayati Raj system. 



The Maharashtra Government and Tata Trust on 19 January 2016 signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for a skill training programme for the youth in the state. The programme has been undertaken under the Maharashtra Government’s Kushal Maharashtra, Rojgaryukt Maharashtra initiative. 

Key highlights of the skill training programme: 
• Under the skill training programme for the youth, skill development and vocational training centres will be set up in 10 districts in Maharashtra. 
• Virtual classrooms will also be set up in 100 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) in Maharashtra. 
• The Trust will improve infrastructure in Industrial Training Institutes. 



Andhra Pradesh Government on 18 January 2016 reconstituted the Commission for Backward Classes with immediate effect. AP Commission for Backward Classes (APCBC) will be a two member commission with Justice KL Manjunath, (Retd.) as its chairman and Member Secretary, APCBC as the other member. The Chairman of APCBC shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of assumption of office. The Commission was not constituted since, 24 September 2011, when the previous commission term expired. 

About Andhra Pradesh Commission for Backward Classes (APCBC): In compliance with the directions of the Supreme Court in Mandal Case (Indra Sawhney Vs Union of India 1992) to set up permanent B.C. Commissions, the Andhra Pradesh Commission for Backward Classes was constituted under the A.P. Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993 and started functioning from 31 March 1994. 



The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on 19 January 2016 released the results from the Phase-1 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16. Phase-1 of the NFHS-4 included 13 States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, West Bengal and 2 Union Territories (UTs) of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry.

About National Family Health Survey: 
• The NFHS-4 is the fourth in a series of national surveys. 
• The previous surveys were carried out in 1992-93 (NFHS-1), 1998-99 (NFHS-2) and 2005-06 (NFHS-3). 
• NFHS-4 is the first of the NFHS series that collects data in each of India’s 29 States and all 7 Union Territories. 
• Also, NFHS-4, for the first time, will provide estimates of most indicators at the district level for all 640 districts of the country included in the 2011 Census. 
• In NFHS-4, women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-54 years are interviewed. 
• When the survey is completed throughout the country, approximately 570000 households would be covered for information. 


Business


Guenter Butschek was on 18 January 2016 appointed as Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of India's biggest auto maker Tata Motors' Group. 



Mindtree on 18 January 2016 signed a definitive agreement to acquire Magnet 360, a Salesforce Platinum consulting partner. It was a deal to accelerate leadership in cloud computing and digital transformation. Mindtree added more than 100 certified Salesforce experts with the acquisition of Magnet 360. This strengthens its ongoing focus on delivering customer success by helping clients digitize their entire back-end value chains. 


Economy

The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog on 17 January 2016 announced that it collaborated with the IDFC Bank Ltd to conduct an enterprise survey of manufacturing firms. The primary objective of this Survey is to assess the business regulatory environment in each State and Union Territories (UTs) and identify policy and regulatory hurdles faced by businesses in the States/UTs. 

Features of the survey: 
• It will include start-ups across all States and UTs. 
• It will bring out a comprehensive analysis and report on State-level performance. 
• It will complement the governments Make in India initiative by taking stock of issues faced and providing impetus for State-level reforms that will make it easier to do business in India. 
• It will suggest measures needed to foster competitive and cooperative federalism. 


Person in News


Veteran Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader and former Sikkim Governor Ventrapragada Rama Rao passed away on 17 January 2016 in Hyderabad after prolonged illness. 



Renowned Kannada lyricist and film-maker Geethapriya died of cardiac arrest on 17 January 2016 in Bengaluru. 



Glenn Frey, a founding member and guitarist of the Eagles, one of the most popular and commercially successful artists of the 1970s, passed away on 18 January 2016 in New York, the USA. He was 67. 



Former Maharashtra health minister and Senior Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Dr Daulatrao Aher died on 19 January 2016.


Awards

The 21st Critics' Choice Awards were conferred on 17 January 2016 at the Santa Monica Airport's Barker Hangar in California. TJ Miller hosted the presentation program. These awards honour the finest achievements in drama and television filmmaking which were aired between 1 June 2015 and 31 December 2015. The Broadcast Film Critics Association (BFCA) and Broadcast Television Journalists Association (BTJA) have announced the nominees for the 2016 awards were announced on 14 December 2015. 

The List of winners of Critics' Choice Awards 2016:
DRAMA:
BEST PICTURE: Spotlight
BEST ACTOR: Leonardo DiCaprio – The Revenant
BEST ACTRESS: Brie Larson – Room
BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR: Sylvester Stallone – Creed
BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS: Alicia Vikander – The Danish Girl
BEST YOUNG ACTOR/ACTRESS: Jacob Tremblay – Room
BEST ACTING ENSEMBLE: Spotlight
BEST DIRECTOR: George Miller – Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST ORIGINAL SCREENPLAY: Josh Singer and Tom McCarthy – Spotlight
BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY: Charles Randolph and Adam McKay – The Big Short
BEST CINEMATOGRAPHY: The Revenant – Emmanuel Lubezki
BEST PRODUCTION DESIGN: Mad Max: Fury Road – Colin Gibson
BEST EDITING: Mad Max: Fury Road – Margaret Sixel
BEST COSTUME DESIGN: Mad Max: Fury Road – Jenny Beavan
BEST HAIR & MAKEUP: Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST VISUAL EFFECTS: Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST ANIMATED FEATURE: Inside Out
BEST ACTION MOVIE: Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST ACTOR IN AN ACTION MOVIE: Tom Hardy – Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST ACTRESS IN AN ACTION MOVIE: Charlize Theron – Mad Max: Fury Road
BEST COMEDY: The Big Short
BEST ACTOR IN A COMEDY: Christian Bale – The Big Short
BEST ACTRESS IN A COMEDY: Amy Schumer – Trainwreck
BEST SCI-FI/HORROR MOVIE: Ex Machina
BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE FILM: Son of Saul
BEST DOCUMENTARY FEATURE: Amy
BEST SONG: Furious 7 – “See You Again”
BEST SCORE: The Hateful Eight – Ennio Morricone
 
TELEVISION
BEST ACTOR IN A COMEDY SERIES: Jeffrey Tambor – Transparent – Amazon
BEST ACTOR IN A DRAMA SERIES: Rami Malek – Mr. Robot – USA
BEST ACTOR IN A MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION OR LIMITED SERIES: Idris Elba – Luther – BBC America
BEST ACTRESS IN A COMEDY SERIES: Rachel Bloom – Crazy Ex-Girlfriend – The CW
BEST ACTRESS IN A DRAMA SERIES: Carrie Coon – The Leftovers – HBO
BEST ACTRESS IN A MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION OR LIMITED SERIES: Kirsten Dunst – Fargo – FX Networks
BEST COMEDY SERIES: Master of None – Netflix
BEST DRAMA SERIES: Mr. Robot – USA
BEST GUEST ACTOR/ACTRESS IN A COMEDY SERIES: Timothy Olyphant – The Grinder – Fox
BEST GUEST ACTOR/ACTRESS IN A DRAMA SERIES: Margo Martindale – The Good Wife – CBS
BEST MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION OR LIMITED SERIES: Fargo – FX Networks
BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A COMEDY SERIES: Andre Braugher – Brooklyn Nine-Nine – Fox
BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A DRAMA SERIES: Christian Slater – Mr. Robot – USA
BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR IN A MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION OR LIMITED SERIES: Jesse Plemons – Fargo – FX Networks
BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A COMEDY SERIES: Mayim Bialik – The Big Bang Theory – CBS
BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A DRAMA SERIES: Constance Zimmer – UnREAL – Lifetime
BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS IN A MOVIE MADE FOR TELEVISION OR LIMITED SERIES: Jean Smart – Fargo – FX Networks
BEST ANIMATION SERIES: BoJack Horseman - Netflix
BEST REALITY SHOW - COMPETITION: The Voice - NBC
BEST REALITY SHOW HOST: James Lipton - Inside the Actors Studio - Bravo
BEST STRUCTURED REALITY SHOW: Shark Tank - ABC
BEST TALK SHOW: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver - HBO
BEST UNSTRUCTURED REALITY SHOW: Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown - CNN 


Sports

Delhi Acers on 17 January 2016 emerged victorious over Mumbai Rockets by 4-3 in the summit clash to clinch the Premier Badminton League (PBL) title.



Viktor Troicki on 16 January 2016 outlasted Grigor Dimitrov in an epic 82-minute third set to claim the 2016 WTA Apia International title of Tennis in the men’s single category. Troicki defeated Bulgaria’s Dimitrov by 2–6, 6–1, 7–6, (9–7) score in the final match played at Sydney, Australia. The Serbian player has become the fourth player in the Open era to claim back- to-back Sydney International titles. 



Ronnie O'Sullivan on 17 January 2016 won his sixth Snooker Masters title after defeating Barry Hawkins 10-1 in the final at the Alexandra Palace in London. 



Sahara Force India Academy racer Jehan Daruvala on 16 January 2016 won one of New Zealand's most prestigious events, the Lady Wigram Trophy. It was Daruvala’s maiden victory in Formula cars since making the switch from karting in 2015. In August 2015, Daruvala won Rookie of the Year at the Formula Renault 2.0 NEC series championships in the Netherlands. 
• The Lady Wigram Trophy is a New Zealand motorsport race trophy formerly awarded to the winner of the Wigram Airfield race. 


Science | Technology

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on 17 January 2016 launched the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from California’s Vandenberg Air Force Base in the USA. The rocket carried the ocean monitoring satellite Jason-3 on board and successfully inserted it in the desired orbit. However, the rocket failed a return landing on a drone platform in the Pacific Ocean. The Jason-3 satellite will examine the topography of the ocean floor to help study effects of climate change or human-induced changes on the ocean. 

Features of Jason-3 Mission
• It is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. 
• It is also expected to help the USA in better forecasting of hurricane forecasting and marine navigation. 
• It will extend the time series of ocean surface topography measurements (the hills and valleys of the ocean surface) begun by the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite mission in 1992 and continuing through the currently operating Jason-1 and Jason-2 missions. 
• The Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 missions were launched in 2001 and 2008 respectively. 
• These measurements provide scientists with critical information about circulation patterns in the ocean and about both global and regional changes in sea level and the climate implications of a warming world. 
• The primary instrument on Jason-3 is a radar altimeter. The altimeter will measure sea-level variations over the global ocean with very high accuracy (as 1.3 inches or 3.3 centimeters, with a goal of achieving 1 inch or 2.5 centimeters). 



A mosquito-borne virus called Zinka was in news in the third week of January 2016. It was found that the virus is spreading rapidly through the American continent. The first case was confirmed in Texas, USA in January 2016 when a traveler returning from Latin America. 

The disease caused by this virus is not fatal and lasts up to a week, but it was identified that there is a possible link between the virus and a birth defect called microcephaly that causes babies to be born with abnormally small heads and potential developmental problems. 



The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on 20 January 2016 successfully launched the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) 1-E satellite. The satellite will provide navigation, tracking and mapping services to the Indian sub continent. The satellite is the fifth of the IRNSS constellation. It was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR), Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on-board the PSLV-C31. 

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)-C31 was the 32nd consecutively successful mission of the PSLV. The 'XL' configuration of PSLV was used for this mission. This is the eleventh time ‘XL’ configuration was flown, earlier ten being PSLV-C11/Chandrayaan-1, PSLV-C17/GSAT-12, PSLV-C19/RISAT-1, PSLV-C22/IRNSS-1A, PSLV-C25/Mars Orbiter Spacecraft, PSLV-C24/IRNSS-1B, PSLV-C26/IRNSS-1C, PSLV-C27/IRNSS-1D, PSLV-C28/DMC-3 and PSLV-C30/ASTROSAT missions. 

Features of IRNSS-1E
• IRNSS-1E, weighing 1425 kg, is the fifth of the seven satellites constituting the IRNSS. 
• IRNSS-1A, 1B and 1C and 1D, the first four satellites of the constellation, were successfully launched by PSLV in July 2013, April 2014, October 2014 and March 2015 respectively. 
• IRNSS -1E carries two types of payloads – navigation payload and ranging payload. 
• The navigation payload of IRNSS-1E will transmit navigation service signals to the users. This payload will be operating in L5-band and S-band. 
• A highly accurate Rubidium atomic clock is part of the navigation payload of the satellite. 
• The ranging payload of IRNSS-1E consists of a C-band transponder which facilitates accurate determination of the range of the satellite. IRNSS-1E also carries Corner Cube Retro Reflectors for laser ranging. 

Features of IRNSS
• It consists of seven satellites to provide real-time data on the position of objects to aid road, air and maritime traffic apart from providing mapping and tracking services. 
• It is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland. 
• It would provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Services (SPS), which will be provided to all users, and Restricted Services (RS) that will be provided to authorised users only. 
• Out of the seven satellites of the system, three are geostationary and four are non-geostationary. 
• The remaining satellites of this constellation, namely, IRNSS-1F and IRNSS-1G, are expected to be launched in February 2016 and March 2016 respectively. 
• By using the IRNSS as a platform, the Government of India is planning to launch its own Global Navigational Satellite Services, GINS (Global Indian Navigation Satellite) system. It is similar to the Global Positioning System (GPS) of the USA. 


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