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Daily Current Affairs - 23 to 25 January, 2016


Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa on 24 January 2016 won the Presidential election of Portugal. Sousa, a centre-right Social Democrats candidate and a former journalist, won the election by securing 52 percent of votes. Sousa, popularly known as ‘Professor Marcelo’ and aged 67 is the one-time leader of the center-right Social democrats. He will succeed President Anibal Cavaco Silva.

Presidential Election in Portugal: Under the Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the form of government is ‘semi-presidential’ system. That is, president though is a ceremonial figure in Portugal but he plays an important role at times of political uncertainty. He has the power to dissolve parliament and remove the prime minister. 
The President is elected for a five-year term and there is no limit to the number of terms a president may serve. The official residence of the Portuguese President is the Belem Palace. 

US News and World Report, WPP’s BAV Consulting and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania on 20 January 2016 released the inaugural Best Countries report, a joint rankings and analysis project at the World Economic Forum, Davos. The rankings evaluate 60 nations across 24 rankings lists on a wide range of criteria, from sustainability to economic influence. Germany is viewed as the best country in the world followed by Canada and the United Kingdom. India is ranked as the 22nd best country in the World. 

Main Highlights :
• Sweden is recognized as the most modern country, the Best Country to Raise Kids and the No. 1 nation for Green Living. 
• Denmark is named the Best Country for Women. 
• The United States is named the most powerful country 
• India has the No. 1 upcoming economy. 
• Germany is the best country for entrepreneurship, 
• Luxembourg is the most business friendly. 
• Italy is the country with the richest tradition 
• Brazil is the No. 1 nation to visit. 
• Canada tops the list of countries with the best quality of life. 

2016 Best Countries Rankings:1.Germany, 2.Canada, 3. United Kingdom, 4. United States, 5. Sweden, 6. Australia, 7. Japan, 8. France, 9. Netherlands, 10. Denmark.

Japan on 22 January 2016 lifted sanctions on Iran, falling in line with major world powers. The announcement was made by Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga. The sanctions were lifted after the United Nations atomic energy agency confirmed on 16 January 2016 that Tehran has fully taken steps to curb its disputed nuclear programme. 

The move will allow Japanese companies to pursue investment in Iran's oil and gas industry. Tokyo imported around 10 percent of Iran’s oil before introducing sanctions against Tehran. After the sanctions, this share fell to 5 percent and then reduced even further.

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) on 19 January 2016 released World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) 2015 report. The report highlights that the world economy stumbled in 2015 and only a modest improvement is projected for 2016/17. 

Highlights of the Report :
1. Global growth is estimated at a mere 2.4 percent in 2015, marking a downward revision by 0.4 percentage points from the UN forecasts presented in 2015. 
2. The world economy is projected to grow by 2.9 percent in 2016 and 3.2 per cent in 2017, supported by generally less restrictive fiscal and still accommodative monetary policy stances worldwide. 
3. The large capital outflows and increased financial market volatility, growth in developing and transition economies has slowed to its weakest pace since the 2008 global financial crisis. 
4. Given the much anticipated slowdown in China and in other large emerging economies notably the Russian Federation and Brazil, the pivot of global growth is partially shifting again towards developed economies in 2016.
5. In 2016 and 2017, South Asia region is expected to be the world’s fastest-growing region despite challenging global conditions. GDP growth in the least developed countries is expected to rebound from 4.5 percent in 2015 to 5.6 percent growth in 2016, but will fall short of the Sustainable Development Goal target of at least 7 percent GDP growth per annum in the near term.

Five major headwinds for global economy: The WESP 2016 report identifies five major headwinds for the global economy. These are: 
1. Persistent macroeconomic uncertainties,
2. Low commodity prices and diminished trade flows, 
3. Rising volatility in exchange rates and capital flows, 
4. Stagnant investment and productivity growth, 
5. Continued disconnect between finance and real sector activities 

India in WESP 2016: India will be the fastest growing big economy in the world in 2016. The report has projected India’s growth rate at 7.3 percent in the year 2016 and 7.5 percent in 2017, which is slightly up from an earlier estimated 7.2 percent rate in 2015. 

About United Nations World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) report: WESP report is published annually at the beginning of the year jointly by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA), the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the five UN regional commissions and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).


Union Ministry Environment, Forest and Climate Change on 14 January 2016 notified stricter environment standards for sugar industries operating in various states in the country. The revised standards are to be implemented with immediate effect as they were aimed to minimise water pollution. The revised standards will lead to improved operational performance of sugar industries through implementation of wastewater discharge standards and waste water conservation and pollution control management protocol. The standards were recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) after consultations with industries and other stakeholders, as well as seeking comments from general public. 

Highlights of the Revised Standards: 
• Specific wastewater discharge standards were made stricter by limiting them to 200 litre per tonne of cane crushed against the earlier limit of 400 litre per tonne cane crushed which would result less consumption of raw water at operational level. 
• The final treated effluent discharge has been restricted to 100 litre per tonne of cane crushed and waste water from spray pond overflow, or cooling tower blow down to be restricted to 100 litre per tonne of cane crushed.
• The number of effluent quality parameters to be monitored for ascertaining compliance was increased to six. They are pH, Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Oil & Grease (O&G). Earlier, they were only BOD and TSS. 
• The emission limits for particulate matter from stack has been limited to 150milligramme per normal cubic metre. 
• The notified standards also contain a protocol for Treated Effluent Irrigation and Wastewater conservation and pollution control management, wherein treated effluent loading rates (in cubic meter per hectare per day) have been mentioned for different soil textures. 
• The waste water conservation and pollution control management mandates that individual units will establish cooling arrangement and polishing tank for recycling excess condensate water to process sections, or utilities, or allied units. 
The Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) will also be stabilised one month prior to the start of crushing season and will continue to operate up to one month after the end of crushing season.

The Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) and Department of Telecommunication (DoT) on 22 January 2016 signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop and implement National Action Plan for Skill Development in Telecom Sector. The MoU was signed by Secretaries of the Union Ministry of Communications and Information and Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. 

Highlights of the MoU :
• MSDE and DoT together have agreed to make concerted joint efforts towards skill development by facilitating mobilization of financial support under the National Ecosystem for Development of Telecom Skills. 
• They will suggest PSUs under DOT to utilize at least 20 percent of their CSR funds for skilling purposes. 
• The two ministries will also to make coordinated efforts to utilize old telephone exchanges which are no longer in use for skill development initiatives and upgrade the same on need basis. 
National Institute for Policy Research Innovation and Training (NTIPRT) will be developed for training and skill up gradation in Telecom Sector by leveraging the infrastructure and facilities. 

India on 22 January 2016 submitted its first Biennial Update Report (BUR) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report was submitted towards fulfilment of the reporting obligation under the Convention. As per the provisions of the Convention, countries need to periodically provide information in the form of their National Communication. 

Highlights of the Biennial Update Report (BUR): 
• BUR contains national GHG inventory of India for the year 2010, prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 
• The inventory covers six greenhouse gases- Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). 
• The inventory contains five categories namely- energy, industrial processes and product use (IPPU), agriculture, waste and Land-use, Land-use, Change and Forestry (LULUCF). 
• As per BUR, India emitted 2136.84 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases in 2010. 
• Energy sector was the prime contributor to emissions and with 71 percent of total emissions in 2010. 
• Industrial processes and product use contributed 8 percent; agriculture and waste sectors contributed 18 percent and 3 percent respectively to the national GHG inventory. 
• About 12 percent of emissions were offset by carbon sink action of forests and croplands, considering which the national GHG emissions are arrived at a total of 1884.31 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. 
• India’s per capita GHG emission in 2010 was 1.56t CO2 equivalent, which is less than one- third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below than many developed and developing countries. 
• A reducion of emission intensity of GDP by about 12 percent between 2005 and 2010 has been achieved against our voluntary pledge to reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20–25 percent by 2020. 
• At the national level, 137 and at state level 286 policies and measures relevant to climate change have been mapped in the report on non-exhaustive basis. 

The Biennial Update Report (BUR) has been prepared by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change under its NATCOM project funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF) through United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 

Background: The UNFCCC in its sixteenth session of conference of Parties (COP) had decided that the developing countries will submit updates to their national communication on biennial basis in the form of Biennial Update Report. The scope of a BUR is to provide an update to the latest National Communication submitted by the country to the UNFCCC. As per the rules of UNFCCC, BURs are subjected to an international process known as International Consultation and Analysis (ICA).

The Andhra Pradesh Government on 22 January 2016 launched Giriputrika Kalyana Pathakam Scheme to support the tribal women in their quest for livelihood. 

Highlights of the scheme :
• The scheme seeks to reduce rampant infant mortality and child marriages among tribal people.
• It is designed to provide a onetime financial assistance of 50000 rupees to each tribal woman who gets married. 
• The amount will be directly disbursed to the bank accounts of the beneficiary through District Tribal Welfare Office. 
• To avail the benefits of this scheme, each beneficiary would have to fulfil some mandatory conditions like submission of marriage certificate, income certificate, etc. 
• The scheme is envisaged to provide nutritional food to infants till the age of seven years. 

Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar on 23 January 2016 hoisted the largest flag of the country atop the tallest pole at Pahari Mandir in Ranchi, Jharkhand. The flag is 66 feet in height, 99 feet in width and hoisted on a 293 feet-tall pole. The flag is crafted from parachute cloth and has enough clippings to ensure strong winds do not blow it away. The mast sits on around nine feet diameter pedestal fitted with rock anchors. This flag was unveiled to mark the National Defence Day. 

Historical significance of the flag’s site :
• The flag post is situated at the Pahari temple, located atop the 250-foot-high Pahadi Hill in the heart of Ranchi. 
• The site was earlier known as Phansi Tongri. 
• It was where freedom fighters were hung by the British during the independence movement. • Locals hoist the national flag there every January 26 and August 15 in tribute to the slain martyrs.

The two-day long 19th National e-governance Conference with the title Transforming India was concluded on 22 January 2016 in Nagpur, Maharashtra. It is conference on e-Governance which provides a platform to policy makers, practitioners, industry leaders and academia, to deliberate, interact and recommend actionable strategies. 

The 19th National conference was focused on strategies like GATI-Governance with Accountability Transparency & Innovation for citizen -centric services, financial inclusion-JAM & DBT, Urban Governance in smart cities plenary, Cyber security framework for citizen centric, decade of eGovernance-Way ahead, and Technology enabled education. It is being jointly organized by the department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) under Union Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions and Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) every year in partnership with one State Government since 1997. 

During Valedictory function of the conference, The Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Devendra Fadnavis honored 18 winners of national-e-governance awards in 12 categories for their outstanding achievement in the field of e-governance. 

Maharashtra’s first Solar Power operated Mini-Water Supply Plant was commissioned on 24 January 2016 in Hingna village of Mouda Taluka in Nagpur district. The Solar Pump Unit has been installed on experimental basis by Rite Water Solutions under the supervision of the Zilla Parishad authorities. The plant will facilitate villagers to get pure water supply for a very low cost, which can easily be borne by the Gram Panchayat. 

Key facts related to Solar Power operated Mini-Water Supply Plant :
• The system runs completely on solar power for which 1800 Watt panels have been installed. 
• It delivers 10000 Litres of purified water every day and the nitrate content from water is completely removed so as to prevent the ill effects on the health of villagers.

Union Government on 25 January 2016 launched Sahaj Scheme for online booking of LPG cylinders. The booking can be done through the unified web portal which is available in 13 languages. The facility was launched by Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas (Independent Charge) Dharmendra Pradhan. He said that the government is targeting to add 10 crore new LPG connections by December 2018 to the existing 16.5 crore connections. The facility will enable people to book the cylinder around the clock, which will help delivery of the cylinders even in their absence because the payment is already done. This will also eliminate hassles of exact change needed for payment or avoid delivery failure due to no cash situation. 

The minister said that government has plans to ease the process of LPG refills and new connections and few of them are : 
• Installation of touch screen devices at prominent locations like airports, railway stations etc where consumers can book for their LPG refills. 
• The new cooking gas connections will be provided on an EMI basis under which the connections will cost up to 3400 rupees on an EMI basis. The amount can be spread over 24 installments. 

Earlier in January 2016, the Union Government dedicated the year 2016 as the "Year of the Consumers".

Nation on 24 January 2016 observed the 9th National Girl Child Day. It is celebrated to spread awareness about the inequalities faced by the girl child in the country. It is observed on 24 January every year. It was initiated by the government in 2008. Union Ministry of Women and Child Development has been taking different initiatives to address and reverse the trend of declining sex ratio in the country. 

The Ministry has come up with some steps to contribute to the upliftment of the girl Child: 
• Celebrate the birth of a girl Child. 
• Take the Pride in daughters and oppose the mindset related to Paraya Dhan. 
• Find ways to promote equality between boys and girls. 
• Secure admissions to and retention of girl Child in schools. 
• Engage men and boys to challenge gender stereotypes and roles. 
• Report any incident of sex discrimination test. 
• Strive to make neighbourhood safe and violence free for women and girls. 
• Oppose dowry and child marriages. 
• Advocate simple Marriages. 
• Support women’s right to inherit and own property. 

The objective of all these initiatives is to work towards ensuring that girls are born, loved and nurtured and grow up to become empowered citizens of this country with equal rights and opportunities. 

International Day of the Girl Child is observed on 11 October as declared by the United Nations; it is also called the Day of the Girl and the International Day of the Girl. It started from 11 October 2012.


India and France on 24 January 2016 inked 16 agreements at the India-France Business Summit in Chandigarh. The Memorandum of Understanding (MoUs) covered a wide range of sectors like urban development, urban transport, water and waste treatment and solar energy. The agreements were signed in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and French President Francois Hollande, who began his three-day visit to India. Hollande is the Chief Guest at the 67th India’s Republic Day (26 January 2016) celebrations. He is the fifth French leader to be a chief guest at India’s Republic Day celebrations, maximum number from any country so far. 

The 16 agreements include :
• MoU between AFD and Maharashtra on technical cooperation in the field of sustainable urban development for development of smart city in Nagpur. 
• MoU between AFD and the Union Territory of Chandigarh on technical cooperation in the field of sustainable urban development for development of smart city in Chandigarh. 
• MoU between AFD and the Union Territory of Puducherry on technical cooperation in the field of sustainable development for development of smart city in Puducherry. 
• Wind Power Development Agreement between EDF JV with SITAC RE India to jointly explore opportunities for development of wind based power project in India. 
• MOU between EPI ltd – Dassault Systèmes in urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-Egis - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI- Schneider Electric - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-Thales - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-EDF - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-Alstom - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-SA CAN - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-Lumiplan ITS India Pvt Ltd - urban sector development. 
• MOU between EPI-POMA - urban sector development. 
• Agreement between CEA (the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) and Green Ventures – Solar photo voltaic projects in the Indian rural areas (Varanasi, U.P.). 
• Agreement between CEA (the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) and Crompton Greaves - To explore opportunities in Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) System with storage function for Indian Airports. 
• Mahindra-Airbus cooperation to create the new private strategic partner for helicopters within the Make in India initiative. 

Person in News

Former Deputy Speaker of Gujarat Assembly and Social Activist Nirmala Gajwani passed away on 21 January 2016 in Rajkot, Gujarat. She was 87.

Eminent Tabla player Pandit Shankar Ghosh passed away on 22 January 2016 in Kolkata following a prolonged illness. He was 80. 

Famous Malayalam film actress Kalpana Ranjani died on 25 January 2016 in Hyderabad.


India on 24 January 2016 won the first T20 Asia cup cricket for Blind. In the final clash played at Jawaharlal Nehru stadium of Kochi, India defeated Pakistan by 44 runs.

India's Ace Shuttler, PV Sindhu on 24 January 2016 won the Malaysia Masters Grand Prix Gold Badminton title. In the final clash at Penang, she defeated Scotland's Kirsty Gilmour 21-15, 21-9. This was Sindhu’s second Malaysia Masters Grand Prix Gold title, having won it in 2013 as well. With this, Sindhu has won five career Grand prix gold and first title of the year 2016.

Japan's Izumo Takuto and Hong Kong's Zhu Chengzhu on 24 January 2016 became champions in the boys' and girls' categories, respectively, in the 11 Even Sports 2015 ITTF World Junior Circuit Finals at the Abhay Prashal Stadium, Indore, Madhya Pradesh.

About International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) :
• The International Table Tennis Federation is the governing body for all international table tennis associations. 
• The role of the ITTF includes overseeing rules and regulations and seeking technological improvement for the sport of table tennis. 
• The ITTF is responsible for the organization of numerous international competitions, including the World Junior Circuit and the World Table Tennis Championships that has continued since 1926.


Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis on 22 January 2016 presented the National Awards for e-Governance for the year 2015-16 in Nagpur. These awards are given for the outstanding achievement in the field of e-governance.
The awards were conferred during the valedictory function of 19th National e-governance conference held in Nagpur on 21-22 January 2016.
Eighteen winners were awarded in 12 categories.
List of some of the winners:
Category Gold Silver
Excellence in Government Process Re-engineering Shri Alex Paul Menon, District Collector, Balrampur, Chhatisgarh, who is the project-head of ‘Chhatisgarh online school monitoring system (COSMOS) Balrampur The Social Justice Department of Madhya Pradesh for the project ‘SAMAGRA Portal’ – which is an initiative to implement integrated social security programmes.
Outstanding performance in Citizen-Centric Service Delivery
Department of Women & Child Development, Government of West Bengal for its online tracking system for missing children (Track Child)

 Innovative Use of Technology in e-Governance
EPFO, (Employment Provident Fund Organization), Delhi under Ministry of Labour and Employment for its successful implementation of universal account number programme
Delhi Police for its lost report application
 Innovative use of GIS Technology in e-Governance
Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre, Nagpur

 Innovative Use of ICT by Central Government PSUs
IRCTC’s New Next Generation e-Ticketing System

 Use of ICT for Development by Non-Government Institutions
Western Union, Mumbai for its collaboration with India Post for money transfer.

Other award categories included, incremental innovation in existing projects, best district level initiatives in citizen centre service delivery through ICT, innovative use of mobile technology in e-governance.
Besides, sectoral awards in the fields like (Focus Sector for 2015-16: Financial Inclusion), Innovative Use of ICT by State Government PSUs/Cooperatives/Federations/Societies, Outstanding e-Governance initiative by Academic and Research institutions were distributed.
The Paddy Procurement Automation System of Odisha, Village Profile Planning Atlas of Gujarat, Delhi Traffic Police Mobile App, online hotel reservation system of Himachal Tourism were also among the winners of National e-Governance Awards.

6th National Voters’ Day (NVD) was observed across the country on 25 January 2016 by the Election Commission of India. The theme for the 6th National Voters’ Day is ‘Inclusive and Qualitative Participation’.

The Commission’s objective through NVD is to increase enrolment of voters, especially of the newly eligible ones. The National function of the NVD was held in New Delhi and presided over by President of India, Pranab Mukherjee.

On the occasion, the Chief Election Commissioner Dr. Nasim Zaidi also released a book titled, ‘Belief in the Ballot’ and presented it’s the first copy to the President. To celebrate and recognise the contribution of Government department/Agencies to the efforts of ECI for enhancing electoral participation, the election commission has introduced awards. Six newly eligible electors were given their EPICs by President of India.

The awards were given away to
Indicator Name of Offficers Designation
For Innovation Sanjay Kumar Agarwal DEO, Gaya
Balamurugan D
DEO, Purnea
Lokesh Kumar Singh
DEO, West Champaran
Aboobacker Siddique
DEO West SinghBhum
Shirish Mohod
Nodal Officer, Maharashtra
Shekhar Channe
For Electoral Roll Management
Antara Acharya
DEO MEdnipur
For Security Management
Manu Maharaaj
SSP Gaya
Sharat Kumar Sinha
DCP, Delhi
Best State Award

Ajay Nayak,
Thiru. Rajesh Lakhoni,
CEO Tamil Nadu
Chandra Bhushan  Kumar,
CEO Delhi
National Award for Govt. Dept/Agency
Arvind Kumar Chaudhary, Secretary, Rural Development
Jeevika, Bihar
Anish Mankad
Gujarat Education Dept.
Vasumitra, Chief Postmaster General
Department of Posts
National CSO Award
Lalmachhuana ion
Young Mizo Association
National Media Award
Hindustan, Bihar edition

25 January is the foundation day of the Commission, which came into being on this day in 1950. The National Voters’ Day is also utilised to spread awareness among voters regarding effective participation in the electoral process. 

After the completion of the NVD National function, the Commission inaugurated the construction of India International Institute of Democracy and Election Management (IIIDEM) campus at sector-22 Dwarka, New Delhi.

Election Commission of India will be presenting a Tableau with the theme ‘Inclusive and Qualitative Participation’ at the Republic Day parade on 26 January at Rajpath, New Delhi.

President Pranab Mukherjee on 25 January 2016 approved the conferment of Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards 2015 on 50 persons. These series of gallantry awards were instituted in the year 1961. These are given to a person for meritorious act of humane nature in saving the life of a person in cases like drowning in water, accidents, fire incidents, electrocution, natural calamities, rescue operation in mines etc. 

The award is given in three categories, which are :
i) Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak is awarded for conspicuous courage in saving life under circumstances of very great danger to the life of the rescuer. 
ii) Uttam Jeevan Raksha Padak is awarded for courage and promptitude in saving life under circumstances of great danger to the life of the rescuer. 
iii) Jeevan Raksha Padak is awarded for courage and promptitude in saving life under circumstances of grave bodily injury to the rescuer. Both men and women in all walks of life are eligible for these awards. 

The recipients are given a lump-sum monetary allowance at the following rates:- 
a) Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak- 100000 Rupees 
b) Uttam Jeevan Raksha Padak-60000 Rupees 
c) Jeevan Raksha Padak-40000 Rupees

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 24 January 2016 presented the National Bravery Awards to 25 children. This award scheme was initiated by the Indian Council for Child Welfare (ICCW) to give due recognition to the children who distinguish themselves by performing outstanding deeds of bravery and meritorious service and to inspire other children to emulate their examples. It was in 1957 that two children, a boy and a girl were first rewarded for their presence of mind and courage by then Prime Minister Nehru. Since then ICCW confers these awards on children every year. 

In 1987-88 ICCW instituted the Bharat Award for an exceptionally outstanding, meritorious and gallant deed. The other special awards include the Geeta Chopra and Sanjay Chopra awards (instituted by ICCW in 1978) and the BapuGaidhani Awards (instituted in 1988-89). 

The selection of the awards is made by a high powered Committee constituted by ICCW comprising representatives from various Government Departments, some NGOs and Office-Bearers and members of ICCW. The awards are presented by the Prime Minister of India prior to Republic Day and the children then participate in the Republic Day Parade.



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