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Gist of NCERT - Science - Part 2


Different Processes:
  1. The process that is used to separate grain from stalks etc. is threshing. In this process, the stalks are beaten to free the grain seeds.
  2. The process of conversion of water vapour into its liquid form is called condensation.
  3. A saturated solution is one in which no more of that substance can be dissolved. 

Parts of Plants: 
  1. Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs, trees, and climbers based on their height, stems and branches. The stem bears leaves, flowers and fruits. 
  2. A leaf usually has a petiole and a lamina. 
  3. The pattern of veins on the leaf is called venation. It can be reticulate or
    parallel. 
  4. Leaves give out water vapour through the process of transpiration. 
  5. Green leaves make their food by the process of photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
  6. Roots are mainly of two types: tap root and fibrous roots. 
  7. Plants having leaves with reticulate venation have tap roots while plants having leaves with parallel venation have fibrous roots. 
  8. The parts of a flower are sepals, petals, stamens and pistil.

The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings:
  1. The surroundings where plants and animals live, is called their habitat.
  2. The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
  3. There are many types of habitats, however, these may be broadly grouped as terrestrial (on the land) and aquatic (in water).
  4. Plants, animals and microorganisms together constitute biotic components.
  5. Rocks, soil, air, water, light and temperature are some of the abiotic components of our surroundings.

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