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National symbols of India

TitleNational SymbolNotes
National flag Tiranga A horizontal rectangular  tricolour with equally sized deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom. In the center is a navy blue wheel with twenty-four spokes, known as the Ashoka Chakra. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag designed by Pingali Venkayya.
National emblem National Emblem of India An adaptation of Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath was adopted as the National Emblem of India on 24 January 1950, the day India became a republic. Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: "Satyameva Jayate" (English: Truth Alone Triumphs), a quote taken from Mundaka Upanishad, the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas.
National calendarSaka calendarSaka calendar was introduced by the Calendar Committee in 1957. Usage officially started at 1 Chaitra 1879 Saka Era, or 22 March 1957.
National anthemJana Gana ManaJana Gana Mana by Rabindranath Tagore was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950.
National songVande MataramThe first two verses of Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was adopted as the National song of India in 1950. "Vande Mataram" was sung during the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress by Rabindranath Tagore.
Oath of allegianceNational PledgeIt was written in Telugu by Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao in 1962. Central Advisory Board on Education directed that the pledge to be sung in Schools and that this practice to be introduced by 26 January 1965.
National fruitMangoMango (Mangifera indica) originated in India and the country is home to more than 100 varieties of the fruit.
National riverGangaGanga is the longest river of India with the most heavily populated river basin in the world. The river is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth.
National treeIndian banyanIndian banyan (Ficus bengalensis) root themselves to form new trees and grow over large areas. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.
National animalRoyal Bengal tigerThe Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is found only in the Indian subcontinent and can be found in most regions of the country.
National aquatic animalGanges river dolphinThe river dolphin is a freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and the Indus river dolphin. The Ganges river dolphin has a sturdy, yet flexible, body with large flippers and a low triangular dorsal fin. It weighs up to 150kg. The calves are chocolate brown at birth and become grayish brown in adulthood with a smooth and hairless skin. Females are larger than males. It can only survive in pure and fresh water.
National birdIndian peacockIndian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is designated as the national bird of India. A bird indigenous to the subcontinent, the peacock represents the unity of vivid colours and finds references in Indian culture. On February 1, 1963, The Government of India had decided to have the Peacock as the national bird of India.
The question of selecting a national bird has been under consideration since the Tokyo conference of the International Council for Bird Preservation held in May 1960. This matter was taken up by the Indian Board for Wild Life and the State Governments were also asked to give their views. Some of the other birds considered for the honour were the Great Indian Bustard, the Sarus crane, the "Garuda" and the Swan (Hamsa), the strongest contender being the Great Indian Bustard.
National currencyIndian rupeeIndian rupee (ISO code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant "र" (ra) and the Latin letter "R" was adopted in 2010. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam born 10 October 1978 in Kallakurichi, Tamil Nadu is the designer of the Indian rupee sign. His design was selected from among five short listed symbols. According to Udaya Kumar the design is based on the Indian tricolour.
National microbeLactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricusLactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus has been announced as the National Microbe for India by Jayanthi Natarajan, India's Minister of State for Environment and Forests on October 18, 2012 during the International Conference on "Biodiversity Conservation and Education for Sustainable Development - Learning to Conserve Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing World" held at Hyderabad during CoP-11. The microbe was selected by children who had visited the Science Express Biodiversity Special, a train which has been visiting various stations across the country.
National reptileKing cobraKing cobra is the national reptile of India. It is considered a sacred animal in Indian culture. They are found in almost every part of the Indian subcontinent.
National heritage animalIndian elephantIndian elephant is the national heritage animal of India since October 22, 2010. India's Environment Ministry has declared the elephant a National Heritage Animal in order to increase protective measures for the country's nearly 29,000 elephants."Declaring it the National Heritage Animal will give it due place as emblem of ecological sensitivity. It will also mark recognition for its centrality in our plural cultures, traditions and oral lore," the task force wrote in its report.
National vegetablePumpkinPumpkin or Meetha Kaddu is an integral part of Indian food
National flowerLotusLotus is the National Flower of India

Last updated on: 19/11/2019

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