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Facts and Terminology ( Sports )


Cricket Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Cricket was started in England in 1300 AD.
  • It started as a game of shepherds and became popular among other classes in 18th century AD.
  • After some time a club known as "Merylebone Cricket Club(MCC)" was formed at Lords in London. 
  • Cricket became popular in Australia due to British influence there.
  • The first official cricket test match was played in the year 1877 between Australia and England in Melbourne.
  • When some other countries started played Cricket Imperial Cricket Conference was formed in 1909 which gave birth to International Cricket Conference in 1956.
  • The first One Day International cricket match was played in the year 1971 between England and Australia in Melbourne.
  • The first World Cup on one day matches was played in 1975 in London. West Indies wont the World Cup beating Australia 17 runs.
  • The apex institutions of world cricket is the 'International Cricket Council'(ICC) and its headquarters is now in Dubai from August 1, 2005. Earlier it was in Lords(England).
  • Australia won the maximum of four World Cups till date.
  • In India Cricket was introduced by British royalty. Parsee community of India was the first to take part in Cricket in 1848.
  • Later on Parsee team visited England in 1886. Matches between European and Parsee teams, called Presidency matches, were started in Poona (now Pune) and Bombay (now Mumbai) 
  • Raja Bhupindra Singh of Patiala donated the Ranji Trophy in 1934 for the national championship of Cricket. 
  • The Board of Council for Cricket in India was formed in 1927.

Some Important terminologies of Cricket:- played on, Appeal, Bye, Leg Bye, Power Play, Follow on, Dusara, Beamer, Hoober Shot, Lost Ball, Duck worthLuis, Retired Hurt, Chinaman, Batsman, Bowler, Wicket Keeper, Fielder, LBW (Leg Before Wicket), Catch, Hit Wicket, Throw, Maiden over, Four, Sixer, Wide, Swing, Stroke, Cover,Mid on, Mid off, Mid Wicket, over the wicket, round the wicket, Leg spinner, Off spinner, Over throw, Over slip, Gulley, Cover point, Long off, Long on, Third man, Short pitch, Hook, Dead ball, Run out, Popping crease, Pitch, Bouncer (or Bumper), Full toss, Yorker, Yorked, Googley, Wicket Maiden, Snick, Duck, Hat-Trick, Rubber, The Ashes, Scoring a Ton etc. 

Badminton Facts & Terminology
  • Modern Badminton was probably developed in the 17th century and obtained its name from the place 'Badminton' in Gloucestershire (England).
  • The International Badminton Federation (IBF) was established in 1934.
  • The trophy for the international matches was named Thomas Cup after the name of the first president of the IBF Sir George Thomas. Thomas Cup competition (for men) in 1948-49. Uber cup Championship (for women) started in 1956.  
  • World Badminton Championship started in 1977. 
Some important terminology in Badminton :- Badminton court, End, Trans Lines, Back gallery, Service Court, Let, Forward stroke, Backward Stroke, Toss or Lob, Clear, Smash, Net Strokes, Rally, Setting, First hand or Second hand, Side out, Base of operation, Rotation, Long service, Net Fault, Double fault, Foot fault, Service break, Match Point, Set point, High service, Cross shot, Service change, Drive, Drop shot, Duce, Advance etc.

Basketball Facts & Terminology
  • The game Basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith of USA in 1891 at Springfield College. 
  • International Basketball Federation was set up in 1932.  
  • Basketball Federation of India was formed in 1950. Its first World Championship was played in 1950. 
Some important terminology in Basketball :- Dribbling, Front court, Second dribble, Two count stop, Travelling or shifting, Pivoting, Held ball, Jump ball, Violation, Foul, Feinting or Dodging, Shooting, Set shot, Ring, Guard point, Dead ball, Basket Rudnick, Hook Pass, Goal, Centre line, Free throw line, Onstead, Fast break, Lay-up shot, Man to man defence, Pack, Three point, Turn over, Assist, Throw, Goal Tending, Steal, Tap etc.

Football Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Football is also British origin. However, it is said that a game similar to Football was played in 500 BC by the Greeks of Spart and they called this game 'Harpaston'. 
  • The first football club of the world 'Sheffield Football Club' was founded in the year 1857 in England. Football was introduced in India by the Britishers in 1848 and the first football club of India was 'Dalhousie Club'. 
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  • The indian Football Association, the oldest football association in the east, was formed in 1878. 
  • The Apex institution of football is 'Federation of Internationale de Football Association' (FIFA), which was formed by sever countries on May 21, 1904. 
  • The headquarters of FIFA is in Paris (France). In order to distinguish this game from carrying cum kicking game i.i Rugby, it was given the name of "Soccer". This name was given to this game (Football) by an association named London Football Association which was formed in 1863 in England. 
  • The Football World Cup, organised by the FIFA, is the biggest competition. 
  • Football was included as a competitive game in Olympic Games officially in 1908. 
  • India took part in the world Olympic Football Competition in 1948 in London.
  • Besides Olympic competitions, World Cup Football Championship were planned by two Frenchmen i.e. m jules Rimet and Henry Delaunary. 
  • Jules Rimet was president of the French Football Federation and remained president of FIFA from 1924 to 1954. 
  • The first World Cup was organised at Monte Video (Uruguay) in 1930. 
  • The Trophy for this championship was named as "Jules Rimet Cup". This trophy became the permanent property of Brazil, as this country had won the world title third time (1958, 1962 and 1970). 
  • From 1974 (Xth Championship of Germany) onwards, the trophy was named as "The FIFA World Cup". This was a new trophy cast in 18 ct. gold. 
  • In India Indian Football Association (IFA) organised National Football Championship. 
  • The trophy awarded in thier competition is called Santosh Tropyy, which was donated in the memory of Manmath Nath Roy Chaudhary of Santosh (now a part of Bangladesh) .
  • Durand Cup tournament was first organised at Shimla and is being held in Delhi since 1940. 
  • A new chapter was added to the annals of the country's (India's) soccer with the launch of the Football Players' Association (FPA) of India in Kolkata on August 13, 2006. 
  • FIFA announced (in April 17, 2007) an assistance of $1 million to Indian football by launching 'Win in India with India' project that will initially run for a period of four year.  
  • The All India Football Federation (AIFF) has started the 'Goal Project' in Manipur and the second was launced in Delhi. 
Some Important Terminology in Football :- Abbey, Dribble, Extra time, Full back, Half back, Striker, Centre, Forward, Penalty kick, Free kick, Scissor kick, Goal kick, Direct kick, Corner kick, Referee, Tie breaker, Hat trick, Hand ball, Sweeper, Back, Throw in, Hand-ball (Fault), Touch line, Place Kick, or Kick off, Direct Free Kick, Indirect Free Kick, Tackle, Off side, Sliding Tackle, Drop Ball, Sudden death, Penalty shoot out etc.

Hockey Facts & Terminology
  • 'Blackheath Rughy and Hockey Club' is the first hockey club in the world which was set up in the year 1861 in England. 
  • London ws the first city in England to popularize this game in the 1870s.
  • In the year 1886, Hockey Association of England was formed in London. 
  • the apex institution of hockey is 'Federation Internationale de Hockey', which was established on January 7, 1924, with headquarters at Vienna (Austria), which was later shifted to Paris (France). The first International Hockey Match was played between Wales and Ireland in Rayle on June 26, 1895. 
  • Hockey was introduced in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1908 in London. 
  • Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) was formed on the 7th November, 1925 at Gwalior. 
  • Since 1944, National Hockey Championship is organised by the IHF every year. 
  • All India Women's Hockey Federation was formed in 1947. 
  • India took that part in Olympics for the first time in 1928 (in Amsterdam Olympics) .
  • In Olympics, India has won the hockey title a maximum of 8 times. The first World Cup Hockey was played in Barcelona in 1971. 
Some important Terminology in Hockey :- Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Carry, Dribble, Dodge, Goal line, Green Card, Flick, Free hit, Face of Stick, Jab Stroke, Lung Stroke, Melle, Off side, Penalty shoot out, Short Corner, Striking circle or Shooting circle, Square pass, Tackling, Through pass, Under cutting, Stick, Penalty stroke, Scoop, Side line, Tie breaker, Penalty, Under cutting, Volley, Centre forward, Roll in, Push in, Shooting, Half volley, Full back etc.

Lawn Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • The game Tennis was introduced by Major Wingfeild in Wales in 1870.  
  • All England Championship (populary known as Wimbledon Championship) started in 1877 for men only. Tennis competitions for women (in Wimbledon Championship) were introduced in 1884.
Some important terminology in Lawn Tennis :- Ace, Advantage, A let, Back hand drive, Deuce, Chip Shot, Volley, Half Volley, Let fault, Foot fault, Double Fault, Smash, Service, Grand Slam, Singles sticks, Love, Slice.

Table Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • This game was started in England in 1880s. International Table Tennis Association' was established in 1926. 
  • The first match of the Table Tennis World Championship was played in 1927. 
  • Table Tennis was introduced in the Olympic Games much later in 1988 at Seoul (S. Korea).  
  • Table Tennis Association of India was formed in 1938. 
Some important terminology in Table Tennis :- Foil, End line, Late control, Flat hit, Block stroke, Service, Penholder grip, Back spin, Centre line, Half Court, Side spin, Swing stroke, Push Stroke, Rally, Let, Reverse, Top Spin, Drop shot, Lob, Chopped return, Counter hitting etc.

Vollyball Facts & Terminology
  • Volleyball, the game played with an inflated bladder and a high net was invented in 1895 at Holyoke Y.M.C.A.Gymnasium in United States of America by a Physical Director William J. Morgan. 
  • Its first name was 'MINTONNETTE' which was later named as Volleybal by Dr. A.T. Halsted of Springfield College because the ball had to be volleyed with hands from one side to the other. 
  • 'International Volleyball Association' was formed in 1947 with its headquarter in Paris (France). 
  • The first World Volleyball Championship was held in 1949 at Prague. 
  • Thr first Asain Volleyball Championship was held at Tokyo (Japan) in 1955 (India beats Japan in the final.) 
  • The Volleyball Federation of India was formed in 1950. 

Some important terminology in Volleyball :- Antennae, Attack hit, Back zone players, Dribbling, Libero, Front Zone players, Blocking, Smash, Rotation, Boosting, Net fault, Volley Pass, Forearm pass, Service, Hook serve, Set up, Referee etc. 


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