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Showing posts with label Computer Knowledge. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Computer Knowledge. Show all posts

Applications of Computers



Computers are used almost in every sphere of human life including government, industries, medicine, education, law, research, arts and media. Its application is limited only by our imagination.

There are so many applications of computers, that it is impractical to mention all of them. This is the Computer Age and these machines are impacting our lives in many ways. Computers are now becoming faster, more reliable and effective than they had been ever before.



Retailing
Products from meats to magazines are packed with zebra-striped bar codes that can be read by the computer scanners at supermarket checkout stands to determine prices and help manage inventory.

Thus, a detailed receipt of the groceries can be made, which is useful for both the customer and the retail store, especially for the stock control system. This is referred as POS (Point of Sale) transaction where a precise account of all the stocks available is recorded and manipulated.



Health and Medicine
Computers are helping immensely to monitor thee extremely ill in the intensive care unit and provide cross-sectional views of the body. This eliminates the need for hired nurses to watch the patient twenty-four hours a day, which is greatly tiring and error prone.

Doctors use computers to assist them in diagnosing certain diseases of the sort. This type of computer is called the Expert System, which is basically a collection of accumulated expertise in a specific area of field.

Computers are now able to map, in exquisite detail, the structure of the human cold virus - the first step towards the common cold. Furthermore, computers are used greatly in managing patients, doctors, wards and medicine records, as well as deal with making appointments, scheduling surgeries and other likes.



Agriculture
Farmers use small computers to help with billing, crop information, and cost per acre, and market price checking.

Cattle ranchers can also use computers for information about livestock breeding and performance.



Training
It is much more cheaper and effective to teach pilots how to fly in a computerised cockpit or simulators, than in real airplanes. This is because the learning pilots will feel much more relaxed and confident due to the fact that no life is at risk at that moment.

Railway engineers can also be given training on how to run a train with the help of a computerised system. Training simulations are relatively cheaper and are always available on one-to-one basis making way for personal training.

Computers are all around us and avoiding them is virtually impossible. We have been exposed in the world of computer advertisements and computer headlines. We interact with computers in our daily lives - whether we are at the cinemas, the school, or the public library.


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Web Browser Shortcut Keys

Internet Explorer shortcut keys
Shortcut KeysDescription

Alt + Left Arrow

Back a page.

Backspace

Back a page.

Alt + Right Arrow

Forward a page.

F5

Refresh current page, frame, or tab.

F11

Display the current website in full screen mode. Pressing F11 again will exit this mode.

Esc

Stop page or download from loading.

Ctrl + (- or +)

Increase or decrease the font size, pressing '-' will decrease and '+' will increase.


Ctrl + Enter

Quickly complete an address. For example, type preparegk in the address bar and press CTRL + ENTER to get http://www.preparegk.com.

Ctrl + D

Add a Favorite for the page currently opened.

Ctrl + I

Display available bookmarks.

Ctrl + N

Open New browser window.

Ctrl + P

Print current page / frame.

Ctrl + T

Opens a new tab.

Ctrl + F4

Closes the currently selected tab.

Ctrl + Tab

Moves through each of the open tabs.

Spacebar

Moves down a page at a time.

Shift + Spacebar

Moves up a page at a time.

Alt + Down arrow

Display all previous text entered in a text box or available options on drop down menu.

Alt + D

Highlights the text in the address bar


Mozilla Firefox shortcut keys
Shortcut KeysDescription

Alt + Home

Go to home page.

Alt + Left Arrow

Back a page.

Backspace

Back a page.

Alt + Right Arrow

Forward a page.

F5

Refresh current page, frame, or tab.

F11

Display the current website in full screen mode. Pressing F11 again will exit this mode.

Esc

Stop page or download from loading.

Ctrl + (- or +)

Increase or decrease the font size, pressing '-' will decrease and '+' will increase.


Ctrl + Enter

Quickly complete an address. For example, type preparegk in the address bar and press CTRL + ENTER to get http://www.preparegk.com.

Shift + Enter

Complete a .net instead of a .com address.

Ctrl + Shift + Enter

Complete a .org address.

Ctrl + Shift + Del

Open the Clear Data window to quickly clear private data.

Ctrl + D

Add a bookmark for the page currently opened.

Ctrl + I

Display available bookmarks.

Ctrl + J

Display the download window.

Ctrl + N

Open New browser window.

Ctrl + P

Print current page / frame.

Ctrl + T

Opens a new tab.

Ctrl + F4 or Ctrl + W

Closes the currently selected tab.

Ctrl + Shift + T

Undo the close of a window.

Ctrl + Tab

Moves through each of the open tabs.

Spacebar

Moves down a page at a time.

Shift + Spacebar

Moves up a page at a time.

Alt + Down arrow

Display all previous text entered in a text box and available options on drop down menu.

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Shortcut-keys for Microsoft Outlook

Action Shortcut keys
Bold Ctrl-B
Check for new mail F9 (Outlook 2003)
Check for new mail F5 (Outlook 2000,2002)
Close a window Esc
Close a window Alt-F4
Copy Ctrl-C
Create Appointment Ctrl-Shift-A
Create Contact Ctrl-Shift-C
Create Flag for follow-up Ctrl-Shift-G
Create Folder Ctrl-Shift-E
Create Meeting Request Ctrl-Shift-Q
Create Message Ctrl-Shift-M
Create Note Ctrl-Shift-N
Create Task Ctrl-Shift-K
Create Task Request Ctrl-Shift-U
Cut Ctrl-X
Delete opened item Ctrl-D
Find Advanced Ctrl-Shift-F
Folder List - Open Ctrl-Y
Forward selected mail Ctrl-F
Italics Ctrl-I
Mark item as read Ctrl-Q
Move down one screen PgDn
Move to first item Home
Move to last item End
Move up one screen PgUp
Create new default item Ctrl-N
Open “Find a Contact” F11
Open “Look In” Open Alt-I
Open selected item Ctrl-O
Open selected item Enter
Paste Ctrl-V
Print Ctrl-P
Read next email Ctrl->
Read previous email Ctrl-<
Redo Ctrl-Y
Remove last semi-colon from mail addressee Alt-K
Reply to selected message Ctrl-R
Save Ctrl-S
Select all items Ctrl-A
Select to first item Ctrl-Shift-Home
Select to last item Ctrl-Shift-End
Send email message Ctrl-Enter
Spell check open item F7
Switch to Inbox Ctrl-Shift-I
Switch to Outbox Ctrl-Shift-O
Underline Ctrl-U
Undo Ctrl-Z

Last updated on: 08/10/2019
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Microsoft FrontPage shortcut keys

Shortcut KeysDescription
Ctrl + C         Copy selected text.
Ctrl + XCut selected text.
Ctrl + PPaste selected text.
Ctrl + KCreate a hyperlink.
Ctrl + BBold highlighted selection.
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection.
Ctrl + UUnderline highlighted selection.
Ctrl + LLeft align the text.
Ctrl + RRight align the text.
Ctrl + ECenter the text.
Ctrl + /Turn on or off the display of HTML tags.
Ctrl + SSave document.
Ctrl + TabSwitch between open web pages.
Ctrl + InsEnter Line break.
Ctrl + EnterMove cursor above or below a table.
Ctrl + Shift + BPreview in web browser window.
Ctrl + Shift + <Decrease font size.
Ctrl + Shift + >Increase font size.
Ctrl + DelDeletes word to right of cursor.
Ctrl + BackspaceDeletes word to left of cursor.
Alt + mouse double-clickView the properties of a selected item. For example, doing this on a table cell would display the properties for that cell.

Last updated on: 08/10/2019

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Microsoft Word shortcut keys

Action Keybord shortcut
Application window-maximize Alt-F10
Application window-previous Alt-Shift-F6
Application window-restore Alt-F5
AutoFormat Ctrl-Alt-K
AutoText-create Alt-F3
AutoText-insert entry Ctrl-Alt-V
AutoText-insert entry F3
Bold Ctrl-B
Bookmarks Ctrl-Shift-F5
Break-column Ctrl-Shift-Enter
Break-page Ctrl-Enter
Browse a document Ctrl-Alt-Home
Browse next/previous item Ctrl-PgDn/PgUp
Capatilize word shift+f3
Case-All Caps Ctrl-Shift-A
Close Ctrl-F4
Close Ctrl-W
Copy Ctrl + C
Copy formatting Ctrl-Shift-C
Create a nonbreaking hyphen CTRL+HYPHEN
Create a nonbreaking space CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR
Customize a menu Ctrl-Alt =
Customize a shortcut Ctrl-Alt-Num +
Cut Ctrl-X
Date Field Alt-Shift-D
Decrease font size CTRL+SHIFT+<
Dialog box next tabbed section Ctrl-Tab
Dialog box previous tabbed section Ctrl-Shift-Tab
Document window-move Ctrl-F7
Document window-restore Ctrl-F5
Document window-size Ctrl-F8
Drawing-constrain shape to symmetrical Shift-drag
Drawing-draw from center Ctrl-drag
Ellipsis Ctrl-Alt-
Em Dash Ctrl-Alt-Num -
Endnote Ctrl-Alt-E
Exit application Alt-F4
Fields-display code Shift-F9
Fields-display codes (toggle) Alt-F9
Fields-double-click in field Alt-Shift-F9
Fields-insert blank field Ctrl-F9
Fields-lock a field Ctrl-3
Fields-lock a field Ctrl-F11
Fields-next field F11
Fields-previous field Shift-F11
Fields-unlink a field Ctrl-6
Fields-unlink a field Ctrl-Shift-F9
Fields-unlock a field Ctrl-4
Fields-unlock a field Ctrl-Shift-F11
Fields-update Alt-Shift-U
Fields-update link in source Ctrl-Shift-F7
Fields-update selected field F9
Find Find Ctrl + F
Font Ctrl-D
Font Ctrl-Shift-F
Font grow/shrink 1 pt Ctrl- ] or [
Font next/previous size Ctrl-Shift- >or <
Font Size Ctrl-Shift-P Ctrl-Shift-P
Footnote Ctrl-Alt-F
Create a new blank document Ctrl + N
Go Back Ctrl-Alt-Z
Go Back Shift-F5
GoTo Ctrl-G
GoTo Next/Previous Paragraph Ctrl-Up/Down
GoTo Next/Previous Word Ctrl-Left/Right
Graphic-crop Shift-drag
Graphic-original proportions Ctrl-click
Hanging indent-decrease Ctrl-Shift-T
Hanging Indent-increase Ctrl-T
Hard hyphen Ctrl-Shift -
Hard space Hard space
Header/Footer-link to previous Alt-Shift-R
Heading Level 1 Ctrl-Alt-1
Heading Level 2 Ctrl-Alt-2
Heading Level 3 Ctrl-Alt-3
Help F1
Help-Whats This? Shift-F1
Hidden text Ctrl-Shift-H
Hyperlink Ctrl-K
Increase font size CTRL+SHIFT+>
Indent-decrease Ctrl-Shift-M
Indent-increase Ctrl-M
Ctrl-Alt-M Insert Comment
Insert ListNum field Ctrl-Alt-L
Italics Ctrl-I
Justify-Center Ctrl-E
Justify-Full Ctrl-J
Justify-Left Ctrl-L
Justify-Right Ctrl-R
Line-spacing Ctrl-1
Line-spacing 1.5 Ctrl-5
Line-spacing 2 Ctrl-2
List Bullet Style Ctrl-Shift-L
Macros-edit Alt-F8
Macros-view VBA code Alt-F11
Mark-Index entry Alt-Shift-X
Mark-TOA citation Alt-Shift-I
Mark-TOC entry Alt-Shift-O
Maximize window Ctrl-F10
Menu Bar F10
Merge-data edit Alt-Shift-E
Merge-field insert Alt-Shift-F
Merge-preview Alt-Shift-K
Merge-to document Alt-Shift-N
Merge-to printer Alt-Shift-M
Microsoft Script Editor Alt-Shift-F11
Microsoft System Info Ctrl-Alt-F1
Move between master/subdocument Ctrl-\
Newline within paragraph Shift-Enter
Next window Ctrl-F6
Nonprinting characters Ctrl-Shift-8
Normal Style Ctrl-Shift-N Ctrl-Shift-N
Open a document Ctrl-O
Open Ctrl + O Opens a saved document
Outlining-collapse Alt-Shift-Num -
Outlining-expand Alt-Shift =
Outlining-expand Alt-Shift-Num +
Outlining-move Alt-Shift-Up/Down
Outlining-promote/demote Alt-Shift-Left/Right
Outlining-Show 1st line Alt-Shift-L
Outlining-Show All Headings Alt-Shift-A
Outlining-Show Heading 1 Alt-Shift-1
Outlining-Show Heading 2 Alt-Shift-2
Outlining-Show Heading 3 Alt-Shift-3
Outlining-Show Heading 4 Alt-Shift-4
Outlining-Show Heading 5 Alt-Shift-5
Outlining-Show Heading 6 Alt-Shift-6
Outlining-Show Heading 7 Alt-Shift-7
Outlining-Show Heading 8 Alt-Shift-8
Outlining-Show Heading 9 Alt-Shift-9
Page number field Alt-Shift-P
Pane-Close Alt-Shift-C
Paragraph Space Above (add/delete 12 pt.)Ctrl-0 Ctrl-0 (zero)
Paste Ctrl-V
Print Ctrl-P
Print Preview Ctrl-Alt-I
Redo the last action CTRL+Y
Remove Character formats Ctrl-Shift-Z
Remove menu item Ctrl-Alt -
Remove Paragraph formats Ctrl-Q
Remove paragraph or character formatting CTRL+SPACEBAR
Repeat the last command Ctrl-Y
Repeat Find Ctrl-Alt-Y
Repeat Find Shift-F4
Replace Ctrl-H
Revision Marks on/off Ctrl-Shift-E
Save As F12
Save Ctrl-S
Select All Ctrl-A
Selection extended F8
Selection reduced Shift-F8
Shortcut Menu Shift-F10
Small Caps Ctrl-Shift-K
Soft hyphen - Ctrl -
Spelling and Grammar check F7
Spell-It-display next misspelling Alt-F7
Spike-cut to Ctrl-F3
Spike-paste Ctrl-Shift-F3
Split a window Ctrl-Alt-S
Style box Ctrl-Shift-S
Subscript Ctrl =
Symbol Font Ctrl-Shift-Q
Table-remove border lines Ctrl-Alt-U
Table-to column Alt-PgDn
Table-to column top Alt-PgUp
Table-to row beginning Alt-Home
Table-to row end Alt-End
Thesaurus Shift-F7
Time Field Alt-Shift-T
To bottom/top of screen Ctrl-Alt-PgDn/PgUp
Type (c) Ctrl-Alt-C
Type (r) Ctrl-Alt-R
Type (tm) Ctrl-Alt-T
underline CTRL+U
Underline-double Ctrl-Shift-D
Underline-word Ctrl-Shift-W
Undo Ctrl-Z
View-Normal Ctrl-Alt-N
View-Outline Ctrl-Alt-O
View-Page Ctrl-Alt-P
Window pane-next F6
Window pane-previous Shift-F6
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Microsoft Excel shortcut keys


Action Excel shortcut
Alternates between displaying cell values and displaying formulas in the worksheet. CTRL+`
Alternates between hiding objects, displaying objects, and displaying placeholders for objects. CTRL+6
Applies or removes bold formatting CTRL+2
Applies or removes bold formatting CTRL+B
Applies or removes italic formatting CTRL+3
Applies or removes italic formatting CTRL+I
Applies or removes underlining CTRL+4
Applies or removes underlining CTRL+V
Applies the Currency format with two decimal places CTRL+$
Applies the Date format with the day, month, and year CTRL+#
Applies the Exponential number format with two decimal places CTRL+^
Applies the General number format CTRL+~
Applies the Number format with two decimal places, thousands separator, and minus sign (-) for negative values CTRL+!
Applies the outline border to the selected cells CTRL+&
Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places CTRL+%
Applies the Time format with the hour and minute, and AM or PM CTRL+@
Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether they have changed since the last calculation CTRL+ALT+F9
Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks F9
Calculates the active worksheet SHIFT+F9
Closes and reopens the current task pane CTRL+F1
Closes the selected workbook window CTRL+F4
Closes the selected workbook window CTRL+X
Copies the selected cells CTRL+C
Copies the value from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the Formula Bar" CTRL+"
Creates a chart of the data in the current range ALT+F1
Creates a chart of the data in the current range F11
Cuts the selected cells CTRL+Y
Displays or hides the outline symbols CTRL+8
Displays or hides the Standard toolbar CTRL+7
Displays the Create List dialog box. CTRL+N Creates a new, blank file CTRL+L
Displays the Delete dialog box to delete the selected cells CTRL+-
Displays the Find and Replace dialog box CTRL+H
Displays the Format Cells dialog box CTRL+1
Displays the Go To dialog box CTRL+G
Displays the Go To dialog box F5
Displays the Help task pane F1
Displays the Insert dialog box to insert blank cells CTRL++
Displays the Insert Function dialog box SHIFT+F3
Displays the Macro dialog box to run, edit, or delete a macro ALT+F8
Displays the Microsoft Office Clipboard CTRL+C
Displays the Open dialog box to open or find a file CTRL+O
Displays the Print dialog box CTRL+R
Displays the Save As dialog box F12
Displays the shortcut menu for a selected item SHIFT+F10
Displays the Spelling dialog box to check spelling in the active worksheet or selected range F7
Edits a cell comment SHIFT+F2
Enters the current date CTRL+;
Enters the current time CTRL+:
Hides the selected columns CTRL+0
Hides the selected rows CTRL+9
Including cells not marked as needing to be calculated CTRL+F9
Inserts a new worksheet ALT+SHIFT+F1
Inserts a new worksheet SHIFT+F11
Maximizes or restores the selected workbook window CTRL+F10
Minimizes a workbook window to an icon F10
Pastes a defined name into a formula F3
Removes the outline border from the selected cells CTRL+_
Repeats the last command or action, if possible CTRL+Z
Repeats the last command or action, if possible F4
Restores the window size of the selected workbook window CTRL+F5
Saves the active file with its current file name and location CTRL+S
Selects all cells that contain comments CTRL+SHIFT+O
Selects the current region CTRL+A
Selects the entire worksheet CTRL+A CTRL+A (two times)
Undo command CTRL+U
Unhides any hidden columns within the selection CTRL+

Last updated on: 08/10/2019

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Microsoft Windows shortcut keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Alt + Tab Switch between open applications.
Alt + Shift + Tab Switch backwards between open applications.
Alt + double-click Display the properties of the object you double-click on. For example, doing this on a file would display its properties.
Ctrl + Tab Switches between program groups or document windows in applications that support this feature.
Ctrl + Shift + Tab Same as above but backwards.
Alt + Print Screen Create a screen shot only for the program you are currently in.
Ctrl + Print Screen Creates a screen shot of the entire screen
Ctrl + Alt + Del Reboot the computer and brings up the Windows task manager.
Ctrl + Shift + Esc Immediately bring up the Windows task manager.
Ctrl + Esc Bring up the Windows Start menu. In Windows 3.x this would bring up the Task Manager.
Alt + Esc Switch Between open applications on taskbar.
F1 Activates help for current open application.
F2 Renames selected Icon.
F3 Starts find from desktop.
F4 Opens the drive selection when browsing.
F5 Refresh Contents to where you were on the page.
Ctrl + F5 Refreshes page to the beginning of the page.
F10 Activates menu bar.
Shift + F10 Simulates right-click on selected item.
F4 Select a different location to browse in the Windows Explorer toolbar.
Alt + F4 Closes Current open program.
Ctrl + F4 Closes Window in Program.
F6 Move cursor to different Windows Explorer pane.
Alt + Space bar Drops down the window control menu.
Ctrl + (the '+' key on the keypad) Automatically adjust the widths of all the columns in Windows explorer
Alt + Enter Opens properties window of selected icon or program.
Alt + Space bar Open the control menu for the current window open.
Shift + Del Delete programs/files without throwing them into the recycle bin.
Holding Shift Boot Safe Mode or by pass system files as the computer is booting.
Holding Shift When putting in an audio CD, will prevent CD Player from playing.
Enter Activates the highlighted program.
Alt + Down arrow Display all available options on drop down menu.
* (on the keypad) Expands all folders on the currently selected folder or drive in Windows Explorer.
+ (on the keypad) Expands only the currently selected folder in Windows Explorer.
- (on the keypad) Collapses the currently selected folder in Windows Explorer.
WINKEY Pressing the Windows key alone will open Start.
WINKEY + F1 Opens the Microsoft Windows help and support center.
WINKEY + F3 Opens the Advanced find window in Microsoft Outlook.
WINKEY + D Brings the desktop to the top of all other windows.
WINKEY + M Minimizes all windows.
WINKEY + SHIFT + M Undo the minimize done by WINKEY + M and WINKEY + D.
WINKEY + E Open Microsoft Explorer.
WINKEY + Tab Cycle through open programs through the taskbar.
WINKEY + F Display the Windows Search / Find feature.
WINKEY + CTRL + F Display the search for computers window.
WINKEY + R Open the run window.
WINKEY + Pause / Break key Open the system properties window.
WINKEY + U Open Utility Manager.
WINKEY + L Lock the computer and switch users if needed (Windows XP and above only).
WINKEY + P Quickly change between monitor display types. (Windows 7 only)
WINKEY + LEFT ARROW Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the left side for side by side viewing. (Windows 7 only)
WINKEY + RIGHT ARROW Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the right side for side by side viewing. (Windows 7 only)
WINKEY + UP ARROW When in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to full size. (Windows 7 only)
WINKEY + DOWN ARROW Minimizes the screen.  Also, when in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to a minimized size. (Windows 7 only)

Last updated on: 08/10/2019

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