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Showing posts with label Defence. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Defence. Show all posts

Research and Development

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is a agency of the Republic of India, responsible for the development of technology for use by the military, headquartered in New Delhi, India.

It was formed in 1958 by the merger of Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation.

DRDO has a network of 52 laboratories which are deeply engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronic and computer sciences, human resource development, life sciences, materials, missiles, combat vehicles development and naval research and development.

The organization includes more than 5,000 scientists and about 25,000 other scientific, technical and supporting personnel.

DRDO started its first major project in surface-to-air missiles (SAM) known as Project Indigo in 1960s. Indigo was discontinued in later years without achieving full success. Project Indigo led to Project Devil, along with Project Valiant, to develop short-range SAM and ICBM in the 1970s. Project Devil itself led to the later development of the Prithvi missile under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) in the 1980s.

IGMDP was an Indian Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including the Agni missile, Prithvi ballistic missile, Akash missile, Trishul missile and Nag Missile.

Naval research and development :

DRDO, BEL and the Indian Navy have developed and productionized a range of Sonars and related systems for the Indian Navy's frontline combat ships.

These include the:
  • APSOH (Advanced Panoramic SOnar Hull mounted),
  • HUMVAD (Hull Mounted Variable Depth sonar),
  • HUMSA (Follow on to the APSOH series; the acronym HUMSA stands for Hull Mounted Sonar Array),
  • Nagan (Towed Array Sonar),
  • Panchendriya (Submarine sonar and fire control system).
Other sonars such as the airborne sonar Mihir, are in trials, whilst work is proceeding apace on a new generation of sonars. Sonars may be considered one of DRDO's most successful achievements as the Indian Navy's most powerful ships rely on DRDO made sonars.


DRDO is currently engaged in developing multiple torpedo designs. These include a lightweight torpedo that has been accepted by the Navy and cleared for production. Other projects include the heavy weight wire-guided torpedo called the Varunastra and the Thakshak thermal torpedo suitable for use against both ships and submarines. 

The electrically powered Varunastra is now stated to be also in production. The DRDO also developed and productionised a microprocessor controlled triple tube torpedo launcher for the Indian Navy as well as a towed torpedo decoy.

Shyena is an advanced experimental torpedo developed by the Naval Scientific and Technological Laboratory, India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) wing. Development was started in 1990.

Other projects

These have included indigenisation of various components (for instance, adsorbent material for submarines, radar components, naval ship signature reduction efforts and materials technology).

DRDO has played a significant role in the development of warship grade steel in India and its productionisation.

DRDO has also assisted private industry in developing EW trainers, ship simulators for training and health monitoring systems for onboard equipment.

Other equipment for the Navy includes underwater telephone sets, and VLF communication equipment, for the Navy's submarines.

DRDO's IRDE has also developed optronic fire control systems for the Navy's and the Coast Guard's ships.

Information command and control systems :
DRDO's labs have been part of projects to develop sophisticated command and control systems for the Navy, such as the EMCCA (Equipment Modular for Command and Control Application) which ties together various sensors and data systems.

The EMCCA system gives commanders on the ship a consolidated tactical picture and adds to the ship’s maritime combat power.

Missile systems:

Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP)

The IGMDP was launched by the Indian Government to develop a local missile design and development ability, and manufacture a range of missile systems for the three defence services.

The IGMDP has seen significant success in its two most important constituents- the Agni missile and the Prithvi missile systems, while two other programs, the Akash SAM and the anti-tank Nag Missile have seen significant orders.

The Trishul missile, a program to develop a tri-service short range SAM faced persistent problems throughout its development, and was shut down in 2007.
IGMDP ballistic missiles
  • Prithvi: The Prithvi missile are a range of SRBMs produced for the Indian Air Force and Army; a variant for the Navy has been deployed on Sukanya class patrol vessel. Another submarine launched variant known as the K-15 is under development. The Prithvi is an extremely accurate liquid fuelled missile with a range of up to 350 km. While relatively inexpensive and accurate, with a good payload, its logistics footprint is high, on account of it being liquid fuelled.
  • Agni missiles: The Agni are a range of MRBMs, IRBMs, ICBM meant for long range deterrence. The Agni-III is the newest version and has the longest range of up to 5,500 km (3,418 mi). The Agni-I and II have been productionized, although exact numbers remain classified.
First trials of the Agni-III saw problems and the missile test did not meet its objectives. The second test was successful. Further tests of the Agni-III are planned to validate the missile and its subsystems, which include new propellant and guidance systems, a new re-entry vehicle and other improvements.

Akash SAM :

The Akash is a medium range surface to air missile system consisting of the command guided ramjet powered Akash along with the dedicated service specific launchers, battery control radar (the Rajendra Block III), a Central Acquisition radar, battery and group control centers..The Akash project has yielded spinoffs like the Central Acquisition radar and Weapon Locating radar.

The Akash system cleared its user trials with the Indian Air Force in 2007. The user trials had the Akash intercept flying targets at ITR, Chandipur. The Akash missile successfully hit its targets in all of the tests.

The Indian Air force has since been satisfied with the performance of the missile and ordered two squadrons of the Akash, with a squadron having eight launchers

The Indian Air Force placed an order for an additional six squadrons of the Akash SAM in 2010, with an order of 750 missiles (125 per squadron).This order makes a total of a 1000 Akash SAMs on order for the Indian Air Force for eight squadrons.

In June 2010, the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) placed an order of the Akash missile system, valued at INR12,500 crore (US$2.8 billion). Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) will be the system integrator and nodal production agency for the Akash Army variant.

Trishul SAM :

The Trishul  is a short range SAM meant for the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy. The Trishul project relied on equipment already in service with the Indian services, to drive down logistics costs, and reduce program development costs and development time.

The Air Force variant separated the missile launchers on Kolos Tatra trucks, locally manufactured by India's BEML. The Naval variant was the most ambitious, with a flight control system with an integrated radar altimeter to intercept sea skimming missiles.

Due to the Trishul's persistent development problems the Indian Air Force, the Indian Army and the Indian Navy began upgrading their existing short range SAM systems or purchasing replacements.The Indian Air Force has since procured batteries of the SPYDER SAM system and the Indian Army is upgrading its OSA-AKM/ SA-8 systems with Polish assistance. The Indian Navy has also moved on to the Barak SAM system.

The Trishul program was effectively closed down in 2006 It has been reported that key technologies developed in the program may be utilized in future systems. It has been reported that the experience gained from the Trishul program will be utilized for a brand new SAM known as the Maitri, which will be codeveloped with the European MBDA missile agency.

Nag anti-tank missile :

The Nag Anti-tank guided missile (Snake in English) is a guided missile system intended for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army. The Army will deploy the Nag on ground based launchers and from helicopters, whereas the Air Force will rely on helicopter based units. The Nag has an Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker and has a top and direct attack capability, with a tandem warhead.

The Army's land missile carrier and launcher,known as the Namica carries several ready to use Nag missiles within, and four Nag missiles in an extendable launcher above the turret. The Namica has its own FLIR based sighting and fire control unit.

The Air Force and Army will also use their Advanced Light helicopters (HAL Dhruv) and the LCH (HAL Light Combat Helicopter) as Nag carriers. The ALH's will be equipped with IRDE (DRDO) developed HELITIS (Heliborne Imaging and Targeting systems) with a combination of a FLIR, Laser range finder, in a stabilized turret for target acquisition and designation. The thermal imager is likely to be imported, but the gimballed turret, stabilization, laser range finder and associated electronics have been designed in India and will be manufactured locally.

Brahmos missile :

Launched as a joint venture between India's DRDO and the Russian NPO, the BrahMos program aims at creating a range of missile systems derived from the Yakhont missile system. Named the "BrahMos" after the Brahmaputra and the Moskva rivers, the project has been highly successful.

The Indian Navy has ordered the BrahMos Naval version, both slant launched and vertically launched, for its ships, with the Indian Army ordering two regiments worth of Land launched missiles for long range strike, and an air launched version is in development for the Indian Air Force's Su-30 MKI's and the Navy's Tu-142 long range aircraft.

The DRDO has been responsible for the Navigational systems on the BrahMos, aspects of its propulsion, airframe and seeker, plus its Fire Control Systems, Mobile Command posts and Transporter Erector Launcher.

Shaurya :

The Shaurya missile is speculated to be the land version of the submarine launched K-15 Sagarika missile, although DRDO officials have reportedly denied its connection with the K-15 program.

Similar to the BrahMos, Shaurya is stored in a composite canister, which makes it much easier to store for long periods without maintenance as well as to handle and transport.

It also houses the gas generator to eject the missile from the canister before its solid propellant motors take over to hurl it at the intended target.

Sagarika :

The K-15 Sagarika is a nuclear-capable submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 750 kilometres (466 mi).Sagarika can carry a payload of up to 500 kilograms (1,102 lb). Sagarika was developed at the DRDO’s missile complex in Hyderabad.

This missile will form part of the triad in India's nuclear deterrence, and will provide retaliatory nuclear strike capability. The development of this missile (under the title Project K-15) started in 1991. The Indian government first confirmed Sagarika's development seven years later (1998), when the then Defence Minister, George Fernandes, announced it during a press conference.

The development of the underwater missile launcher, known as Project 420 (P420), was completed in 2001 and handed over to the Indian Navy for trials.

The missile was successfully test fired six times, and tested to its full range up to three times. The test of missile from a submerged pontoon was conducted in February 2008.

Prahar missile:

It is a short range liquid fuel balistic missile currently under devlopment .It has a range of about 150 Km. 

It was test-fired successfully on 21st July 2011 from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur .


Defence Production Units

Production of defence equipment has always been under the purview of the government. 

India has kept defence production in the public sector since its first industrial policy, outlined in the Industry Policy Resolution of 1948. 

The Industries (Development & Regulation) Act 1951 gave statutory base to that policy. As a consequence, a large infrastructure for defence production was created in India, consisting of:
■ 39 ordnance factories (OFs)
■ eight defence public sector undertakings (PSUs) and
■ 50 research and development (R&D) laboratories.

The private sector has played a significant role in the defence industry as sub-contractors and ancillary industry, although until recently its participation was largely restricted to the supply of raw materials, semi-finished products, parts and components to:
■ defence PSUs
■ OFs
■ the base workshops of the army
■ the base repair depots of the airforce and 
■ the dockyards of the navy.

India’s 39 ordnance factories (OFs) are government units producing armaments under five categories:
■ ammunition and explosives
■ weapons
■ vehicles and equipment
■ armoured vehicles and
■ ordnance equipment (other military supplies, including general stores).

They were built to meet the growing needs of India’s armed forces over the past 60 years.

Defence public sector undertakings 

The eight defence public sector undertakings (PSUs) are public-sector corporations managed by the Indian government. They are:

■ Bharat Dynamics Ltd
■ Bharat Earth Movers Ltd
■ Bharat Electronics Ltd
■ Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd
■ Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd
■ Goa Shipyard Ltd
■ Mazagon Dock Ltd and
■ Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd.

The defence PSUs produce a range of defence equipment. They also provide overhaul and maintenance facilities. 

Defence research and development:
India also has a defence research and development (R&D)capability: the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). 

The DRDO draws on the work of the 50 R&D laboratories/establishments.


Commissioned Ranks In Three Defence Services

Army Navy Air Force
General Admiral Air Chief Marshal
Lieutenant General Vice-Admiral Air Marshal
Major General Rear Admiral Air Vice-Marshal
Brigadier Commodore Air Commodore
Colonel Captain Group Captain
Lieutenant Colonel Commander Wing Commander
Major Lieutenant Commander Squadron Leader
Captain Lieutenant Flight Lieutenant
Lieutenant Sub-Lieutenant Flying Officer

Last updated on: 29/10/2019


Submarines and Missile Boats

INS Chakra, India’s first nuclear powered submarine which was on lease from former USSR, has been decommissioned and returned.

INS Vighuti, India’s first indigenously built missile boat was launched on April 26, 1990 at Mazagon docks, Mumbai.

INS Shalki, India’s first indigenously built submarine was commissioned on February 7, 1992.

INS Shankul, the second submarine was launched on an March 21, 1992

Other important submarine are Sindhughosh (Soviet Kilo), Sishumar (German T—2O9/500), Kursura (Soviet Foxtrot)


(a) INS Vibhuti: Country’s first indigenously built missile boat.

(b) INS Chakra : India’s first nuclear powered submarine. It has now been decommissioned and returned to Russia.

(c) INS Vipul : Second indigenously built missile boat.

(d) INS Savitri: India’s first warship.

(e) INS Shalki : India’s first indigenously built submarine.

(f) INS Delhi : India’s largest, most sophistiated, indigenously built warship.

(g) INS Nashak : Third indigenously built missile boat joined the Navy in 1994.


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has started India’s Integrated Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1982-1983 under the chairmanship of Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. viz.

Prithvi : is a Surface-to-surface battlefield missile and has a range of 150km-250km. It was first launched on February 25, 1988 from Rocket Launching Centre, Sriharikota. It was successfully test fired from the Interiem Test Range at Chandipur-on-sea, March 27, 2003.

Agni : is a Surface-to-surface ballistic missile. It has a range of 1200km-2000km. On May 22,1989 it was first launched from Chandipur (Orissa).

Agni-1 : was successfully test fired from the launch complex at the Wheeler's island located in the Bay of Bengal of the Orissa coast.

Trishul : is a low-level and quick reaction surface-tosurface missile and has a range of 500 m to 9 km (short range). It is developed for all the three defence services namely army, navy and air force. It was first launched in 1985.

Nag : is a Anti-tank guided missile. Its range is 4 km. Its first test flight was made in 1988.

Anti-Missile System : India has embarked upon the developmnt of an anti-missile system capable of detecting and destroying enemy’s long-range missiles similar to the US made ‘Patriot’ which was effectively used against
Iraqi scud missiles in the 1991 gulf war.

Nag Fire and Target System : Indian defence Scientists, in a technological breakthrough, have successfully tested the "fire and forget guidance system" using imaging infra-red seeker for mounting on Nag, making it the first third generation anti-tank missile in the world.

Akash : Akash was successfully test fired from Chandipur-on-Sea, in Balasore district, Orissa on September 19, 2000. It is a medium range surface-to air missile. It has a range of 25 km. It was again successfully test fired on January 21, 2003.

BrahMos : The supersonic anti-ship cruise missile BrahMos, jointly developed by India and Russia, was successfully test fired for the 2nd time in February 12, 2003. For the first time missile was the test fired from the ship (INS-Rajput) stationed in the Bay of Bengal.

The Arjun Tank : The state of the art flagship of Indian armour and can move in a battlefield at 72 kmph. It has laser range finder, computer-based firing system, 12.7 mm machine gun and thermal sighting equipment.

Pinaka : Pinaka is a multi-barrel rocket system characterised by the capability to deliver saturation fire over targets not engagable by guns. It has a range of 40 km and can deliver a variety of warheads.

LCA : LCA is an eight tonne state of the art multi-role combat aircraft. It would be capable of engaging air battle in a 600 km combat zone. It would carry laser-guided bombs, IR and radar guided missiles, anti-ship missiles, cluster bomb dispensers etc.


Military Training Institutes in India

Military Training covers a number of fields such as, Security and Strategic Studies, Defence Management, Artillery, Electronics, Mechanical Engineering, Marine and Aeronautical Engineering, Anti-Marine Warfare, Hydrography, Logistics and Management & Qualitative Assurance Services.

The training is covered under different programmes.
  • Under ITEC-I Scheme, entire cost of air travel, tuition fees, living allowance, medical and study tours are borne by the Government of India.  
  • Under ITEC-II, only the cost of international travel is met by the beneficiary country and all other charges are borne by the Government of India. There is provision for training under the Self-Financing and Reciprocal Schemes also.

Military Training Centers Place
National Defence Academy Khadakvasla (W. Bengal)
Indian Military Academy Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
Rashtriya Indian Military College Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
National Defence College New Delhi
Defence Services Staff College Welliington
Armed Forces Medical College Pune (Maharashtra)
Officer’s Training School Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
College of Combat, Mhow (Army War College) Armoured Corps Centre and School Deolali
College of Military Engineering Kirkee (Pune) (Maharashtra)
Military College of Telecommunications Engineering Secunderabad (Telangana)
Army Cadet College Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal)
College of Material Management Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)
High Altitude Warfare School Gulmarg (J&K)
Army Service Corps School Bareilly (UP)
EME School Secunderabad (Telangana)
Millitary College of Electronics and Mechnical Engineering, Remount and veterinary Corps Centre and School Merrut (UP)
Army Educational Corps Training School and Depot Pune (Maharashtra)
Corpse of Military Police Centre and School Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Army School of Physical Training Pune (Maharashtra)
Army/Air Transport Support School Agra (UP)
Army Clerk Training School Aurangabad (Maharashtra)
Army School of Mechanical Transport Bengaluru (Karnataka)
Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School Vairengte
Institution of Nation Integration Pune (Maharshtra)

Last updated on: 29/10/2019


Other Organisations

Territorial Army

The Territorial Army  is a voluntary, part-time citizen's Army. The conceptual framework or the Territorial Army is based on the fundamental idea that it should exist for war-time employment, and should be maintainable at the lowest cost during peace time.

The concept encompasses the employment of disciplined, dedicated and a low cost force of gainfully employed citizens from all walks of life to supplement and augment the resources of the regular Army. 

These citizens on joining the Territorial Army undergo a short period of rigorous training, which makes them reasonably competent soldiers. Subsequently, they join their units for two months every year for refresher training, to keep in touch with the art of soldiering.

Infantry Battalions (TA) have been embodied for operational services since the raising of the force. Units of the Territorial Army have participated in all wars alongside the regular Army.

In recent times, a maximum of 22 units were embodied in Operation Rakshak, Operation Vijay and Operation Parakram. Infantry Battalions (TA) have also been embodied for counter insurgency operations in North-East and Jammu and Kashmir.

They have been utilised to maintain essential services like railways, oil supply and medical (departmental units) during emergencies.

Some units have been organised for national development tasks in fields like ecology and afforestation and they have rendered commendable services.

National Cadet Corps

The National Cadet Corps (NCC) was established under the NCC Act, 1948.

The NCC strives to provide the youth of the country opportunities for all round development with a sense of commitment, dedication, self-discipline and moral values, so that they become useful citizens of tomorrow.

The total sanctioned strength of NCC cadets is 13 Lakhs. The NCC's presence extends to 606 districts of the country covering 8,454 schools and 5,377 colleges.

Director General, NCC located at New Delhi controls and overseas various activities of the NCC through 16 NCC Directorates spread across the country.

There is a Central Advisory Committee for the NCC to provide overall policy guidelines.

NCC is manned by the service personnel, Whole Time Lady Officers, teachers/professors and civilians.

One lecturer/ teacher in each educational institution is appointed Associate NCC officer.

Rapid Action Force

Rapid Action Force (RAF) is an integral part of the Central Reserve Police Force. 

With 10 battalions it has been conceived in 1992 as a specially trained and equipped to be an effective strike force mainly to tackle communal riots and riot-like situations.

Unlike the conventional force of law and order, the RAF in addition to its law enforcing role has got post-riot role in rescue and relief. 

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy

The Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy is the premier police training institutions in the country which imparts basic as well as in-service training to Indian Police Service (IPS) officers.

Established in 1948 at Mount Abu, Rajasthan, the Academy was shifted to Hyderabad in 1975. 

The Academy also promotes study and research on police-related topics. 

Sashastra Seema Bal

Special Service Bureau (SSB) was set up in the early 1963 under Cabinet Secretariat in the wake of India China conflict of 1962 to build peoples' morale and inculcate spirit of resistance in the border population against threats of subversion, infiltration and sabotage from across the border.

It is now under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs with effect from 15 January 2001 and assigned the responsibility to guard along the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan Borders.

Name of SSB has been changed as "Sashastra Seema Bal" from 15 December 2003. For its dedicated and distinguished service, SSB was presented President's Colours in March 2004.

Cantonment Board

A Cantonment Board is established for municipal administration for civilian population in the cantonment area.

It is delimited area where the military forces and troops are permanently stationed. It is set-up under the Cantonments Act of 2006.

India currently has 62 cantonments in 17 different states, not including smaller 'sub-cantonments' in the same regional area.

Majority of Indian cantonments are spread across Northern, Northwestern and Northeastern India. The British Army too was positioned for threats from across India's northern frontiers, as when the Great Game was in play in the 19th century.

The vast majority of modern Indian Army cantonments date from the British era, though all have been modernized, expanded and reconfigured to suit modern warfare, training requirements and inter-service considerations.

A few have, over the decades, also been dissolved and/or combined with other cantonments. Now the Cantonment Act of 2006 has come into force.


Internal Security

Indian Police

The Police force in the country is entrusted with the responsibility of maintenance of public order and prevention and detection of crimes. 

Public order and police being state subjects under the Constitution, police is maintained and controlled by States.

The Police force in State is headed by the Director General of Police/Inspector General of Police. 

State is divided into convenient territorial divisions called ranges and each police range is under the administrative control of a Deputy Inspector General of Police.

A number of districts constitute the range. District police is further sub-divided into police divisions, circles and police-stations. Besides the civil police, states also maintain their own armed police and have separate intelligence Branches, crime branches, etc.

Police set up in big cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Pune, etc. is directly under a Commissioner of Police who enjoys magisterial powers.

All senior police posts in various States are manned by the Indian Police Service (IPS) cadres, recruitment to which is made on All-India basis.

The Central Government maintains Central Police forces, Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Institutions for training of police officers and forensic science institutions to assist the states in gathering intelligence, in maintaining law and order, in investigating special crime cases and in providing raining to the senior police officers of the State governments.

Border Security Force

Border Security Force (BSF)  raised in 1965, is entrusted with the task of maintaining permanent vigilance on India's international borders.

The present strength of BSF is 157 battalions and guards a total of 6,385.36 km of international borders, spread over mountains, inhospitable deserts, riverine, snow bound and marshy areas.

BSF has been assigned the role of promoting a sense of security amongst the people living in the border areas and preventing trans-border crimes, such as smuggling, infiltration/exfiltration and other illegal activities.

Central Industrial Security Force

The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) - was established in 1969 to provide security to industrial undertakings of the government.

The Force numbering over 96,057 has the responsibility to protect and safeguard the industrial undertakings owned by the Central Government together with such installations as are specified as vital by the Government.

CISF is presently providing security cover to 267 public sector undertakings.

The security of 54 Airports and the Government buildings in Delhi together with such installations as specified vital has also been entrusted to the CISF. The CISF has launched security and fire protection consultancy services in 2001.

Central Reserve Police Force

The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is an Armed Force of the Union of India for internal security management. 

This Force was raised in 1939 at Nimuch (MP) as the Crown Representative's Police and was renamed as the Central Reserve Police Force in 1949.

At present, CRPF has 191 Battalions including Rapid Action Force (RAF).

The Force remained committed to internal security and counter insurgency-cum-antiterrorist operations in various parts of the country.

This is a Force with ladies contingents organised in two Mahila Battalions.

National Security Guard

The National Security Guards (NSG) - modelled on the pattern of SAS of the UK and GSG-9 of Germany has been set up in 1984 for handling counter terrorists and counter hijacking operations including VIP security.

It is a highly trained and motivated force for effectively dealing with terrorist activities in the country.

It also trains state police commandos to upgrade their capability to meet the terrorist threats and carry out bomb detection/defusion operations.

The NSG maintains the only National Bomb Data Centre of the country. 

A counter terrorist operation was carried out by the commandos of NSG at Akshar Dham Temple, Ahmedabad in September 2002 and they were successful in eliminating the terrorists who took refuge in the temple complex.

NSG has been presented Presidential colour on 16 October 2004.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police

The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) - was raised on 21 October 1962 after the Chinese aggression as an integrated intelligence/signal/pioneer/engineering/medical and guerrilla unit and was initially placed under the Intelligence Bureau for operational control.

In 1975, the primary task of the ITBP was re-defined as security of northern borders, to check illegal immigration and trans-border crimes.

ITBP is given the responsibility of providing security/communication/medical cover to the pilgrims during Kailash-Mansarover Yatra besides being the Nodal Agency Disaster Management in the Central and Western Himalayan region.

The ITBP has 29 battalions including four specialist battalions.

Assam Rifles

The Assam Rifles  raised as Catchar Levy in 1835 is the oldest Police Force in the country. 

The force has 46 battalions. 

The force has a dual role of maintaining internal security in the North-Eastern region and guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border. 

The Assam Rifles contribution towards assimilation of the people of north-east into the national mainstream is truly monumental.

The force is fondly called "The Sentinels of the North-East" and "Friends of the Hill People."

State Police Services

The State Police Services, simply known as State Police or SPS are police services under the control of respective state governments of the States and territories of India.

The candidates selected for the SPS are usually posted as Deputy Superintendent of Police or Assistant Commissioner of Police once their probationary period ends.

On prescribed satisfactory service in the SPS, the officers are nominated to the Indian Police Service.

List of police ranks in India :

Ranks of Gazetted Officers :
  • Director Intelligence Bureau (post held by senior most Indian Police Service officer; not a rank)
  • Commissioner of Police (State) or Director General of Police
  • Special Commissioner of Police or Additional Director General of Police
  • Joint Commissioner of Police or Inspector General of Police
  • Additional Commissioner of Police or Deputy Inspector General of Police
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police or Senior Superintendent of Police
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police or Superintendent of Police
  • Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police or Additional Superintendent of Police
  • Assistant Commissioner of Police or Deputy Superintendent of Police
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 2 years of service)
  • Assistant Superintendent of Police (IPS Probationary Rank: 1 year of service)

Ranks of Non-Gazetted Officers :

  • Inspector of Police
  • Sub-Inspector of Police
  • Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police
  • Police Head Constable
  • Senior Police Constable
  • Police Constable


Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force is headed by Chief of Air Staff with its headquarters at New Delhi.

The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.

Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict.

It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the Indian Empire and the prefix Royal was added in 1945 in recognition of its services during World War II.

After India achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the Royal Indian Air Force served the Dominion of India, with the prefix being dropped when India became a republic in 1950.

Since independence, the IAF has been involved in four wars with neighbouring Pakistan and one with the People's Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the IAF include Operation Vijay - the invasion of Goa, Operation Meghdoot, Operation Cactus and Operation Poomalai. Apart from conflicts, the IAF has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions.

The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the IAF. The Chief of Air Staff, an Air Chief Marshal (ACM), is a four-star commander and commands the Air Force.

With a strength of approximately 170,000 personnel and 1,400+ aircraft.The Indian Air Force comprises one of the worlds largest air forces.

Commands and structure:

The Indian Air Force is divided into five operational and two functional commands. 

Each Command is headed by an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Air Marshal.

The purpose of an operational command is to conduct military operations using aircraft within its area of responsibility, whereas the responsibility of functional commands is to maintain combat readiness.

Operational Commands
  • Central Air Command (CAC), headquartered at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
  • Eastern Air Command (EAC), headquartered at Shillong, Meghalaya
  • Southern Air Command (SAC), headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
  • South Western Air Command (SWAC), headquartered at Gandhinagar, Gujarat
  • Western Air Command (WAC), headquartered at Subroto Park, New Delhi.
Functional Commands
  • Training Command (TC), headquartered at Bangalore, Karnataka
  • Maintenance Command (MC), headquartered at Nagpur, Maharashtra

The Air force combat fleet is made up of 45 squadrons consists a variety of fighters, fighter-bombers, fighter interceptors, bombers and transport and logistics support aircraft.
  • Air chief Marshal
  • Air Marshal
  • Air Vice Marshal
  • Air Commodore
  • Group Captain
  • Wing Commander
  • Squardron Leader
  • Flt. Lieutenant
  • Flying officers

On 15 Aug 1947, the Air Force Training Establishments located in India were:
  • Initial Training Wing, Coimbatore formed on 11 July 46. 
  • Elementary Flying Training School, Jodhpur formed on July 42. 
  • Advanced Flying Training School, Ambala formed on July 41. 
  • No.1 Ground Training School, Jalahalli formed on July 47. 
  • No.2 Ground Training School, Tamabaram formed on Feb 47.
Currently we have following AirForce Training Centers in India.

AirForce Training Centers
Air Force Administrative College Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
Air Force Academy Hyderabad (Telangana)
Air Force Technical College Jalahalli
Air Force School Sambre, Belgaum
Flying Instructors’ School Tambaram (Tamil Nadu)
Elementrary Flying School Bidar (Andhra Pradesh)
Fighter Training and Transport Hakimpur and Yelahanka (Karnataka)
Training Wings of the Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine Bangluru (Karnataka)
Paratroopers Training School Agra (Uttar Pradesh)
Navigation and Signal School Hyderabad (Telangana)
College of Air Warfare Secunderabad (Telangana)
Ground Training Institutes Vadodara (Gujarat) and Barrackpur (West Bengal)


Indian Navy

The Navy is responsible for the defence and security of India’s maritime interests and assets, both in times of war and peace.

The Chief of Naval Staff at the Naval headquarters, New Delhi, is assisted by four Principal Staff Officers, namely Vice-Chief of Naval Staff, Deputy Chief of Naval Staff, Chief of Personnel and Chief of Material.

On India attaining Independence, the Royal Indian Navy consisted of 32 ageing vessels suitable only for coastal patrol, along with 11,000 officers and men.

The senior officers were drawn from the Royal Navy, with R Adm ITS Hall, CIE, being the first Post-independence Commander-in-Chief.

The prefix 'Royal' was dropped on 26 January 1950 with India being constituted as a Republic.

The first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Navy was Adm Sir Edward Parry, KCB, who handed over to Adm Sir Mark Pizey, KBE, CB, DSO in 1951.

Adm Pizey also became the first Chief of the Naval Staff in 1955, and was succeeded by V Adm SH Carlill, CB, DSO.

On 22 April 1958 V Adm RD Katari assumed office as the first Indian Chief of the Naval Staff. 

Indian Navy is headed by Chief of Navel Staff with headquarters at New Delhi.

He is assisted by Vice Chief of Naval Staff, Chief of Personnel, Chief of Material and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff.

The Navy is organised into following commands:-

S.No. Command Headquarter
Eastern command

Southern command

Western command


Each command is headed by a Flag Officer Commanding-inChief in the rank of Vice-Admiral.

Western Naval Command and Eastern Naval Command have under them, operational fleets,  i.e., Western and Eastern Fleet comprising warships, submarines, aircraft and other support ships.

Southern Naval Command is responsible for all training activities of the Indian Navy.

The Indian Navy is a well-balanced three-dimensional force consisting of sophisticated missile-capable warships, aircraft carriers, minesweepers, advanced submarines and the latest aircraft in its inventory.

Many of the warships are of indigenous design and have been constructed in Indian shipyards.  These ships compare well with the ships of similar capability constructed by the advanced countries.  The Naval forces are maintained and supported by modern dockyard facilities encompassing state-of-the-art technology.

At present the Navy has two major Naval bases at Mumbai and Visakhapatnam.

  1. Navy
  2. Admiral
  3. Vice Admiral
  4. Read Admiral
  5. Commodore
  6. Captain
  7. Commander
  8. Lt Commander
  9. Lieutenant
  10. Sub-Lieutenant

The Indian Navy is divided into the following broad categories
  • Administration 
  • Logistics and Material 
  • Training 
  • The Fleets 
  • The Naval Aviation and 
  • The Submarine Arm.
The Indian Navy has numerous training establishments at various places. 

The Indian Naval Academy is presently located in Ezhimala, near Kannur in Kerala State.

Naval Training Centers Place
INS Cilka Bhubaneshwar (Orrisa)
INS Circars Visakhapattanam (AP)
INS Hamla Malad, Mumbai (Maharashtra)
INS Mandovi Goa
INS Shivaji Lonawala (Maharashtra)
INS Valsura Jamnagar (Gujrat)
INS Venduruthy Kochi (Kerala)
Naval Academy Kochi
Navy Shipwright School Viskhapattanam (AP)
Sailor’s Training Establishment Dabolim (Goa)
Naval Gunnery School Kochi
Torpedo/Anti-Submarine School Kochi


Indian Army

The Indian Army is the world's second largest army in terms of military personnel. 

The basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggression. 

In addition, the Army is often required to assist the civil administration during internal security disturbances and in the maintenance of law and order, in organising relief operations during natural calamities like floods, earthquakes and cyclones and in the maintenance of essential services.

The Indian Army is one of the finest armies in the world.

Modernisation and upgradation of Army is a continuous process to keep Armed Forces ready to meet any challenge of tomorrow.

It is based on fiver years plans. Focus and core areas of modernisation has been:-
  • 1. Improvement in the Fire Power and increased Mobiliy 
  • 2. All Weather Battle Field Surveillance capability 
  • 3. Night Fighting capabilities 
  • 4. Enhace capability of Special Force 
  • 5. Capability for Network Centric Warfare 
  • 6. NBC Protection

Army has its headquarters in New Delhi.

The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, and it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), who is a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, which is a ceremonial position of great honour.

The Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which eventually became the British Indian Army, and the armies of the princely states, which finally became the national army after independence.

Command structure :

The army operates six operational commands and one training command.

Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of lieutenant general. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in New Delhi.

These commands are given below in their correct order of raising, location (city) and their commanders.

There is also the Army Training Command abbreviated as ARTRAC. Besides these, army officers may head tri-service commands such as the Strategic Forces Command and Andaman and Nicobar Command, as well as institutions like Integrated Defence Staff.

Insignia Name Headquarters Commander Subordinate Unit(s)
Indian Army HQ.jpgHeadquarters, Indian ArmyNew Delhi50th Independent Parachute Brigade – Agra
IA Central Command.jpgCentral CommandLucknowLt General Iqroop Singh Ghuman6th Mountain Division - Bareilly
IA Eastern Command.jpgEastern CommandKolkataLt General Anil Chauhan
IA Northern Command.jpgNorthern CommandUdhampurLt General Ranbir Singh
IA Southern Command.jpgSouthern CommandPuneLt General Satinder Kumar Saini
  • 41st Artillery Division – Pune
IA South Western Command.jpgSouth Western CommandJaipurLt General Alok Singh Kler
  • 42nd Artillery Division – Jaipur
IA Western Command.jpgWestern CommandChandimandirLt General Surinder Singh
  • 40th Artillery Division – Ambala
IA Training Command.jpgArmy Training CommandShimlaLt General Pattacheruvanda C. Thimayya

The Major Static Formation are divided into Areas, Independent Sub-Areas and sub-areas. 

Area is commanded by a General Officer Commanding of the rank of a Major General and an Independent Sub-Area and sub-area by a Brigadier.

Indian army is divided broadly into two main categories:-
  1. Arms
  2. Services
Indian Army consists of following ranks:-
  1. General
  2. Lt. General
  3. Major General
  4. Brigadier
  5. Colonel
  6. Lt. Colonel
  7. Major
  8. Captain
  9. Lieutenant

Tanks of Army
  • Vijayanta is first indigenous tank.
  • Arjun is the mostsophisticated battle tank, designed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • T-55 and T-72 are the two important Soviet-built battle tanks.

Last updated on: 29/10/2019


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