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Showing posts with label Indian Government - Personalities. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indian Government - Personalities. Show all posts

Chiefs of Air Staff


Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head and the commander of the Indian Air Force.

The position is abbreviated as CAS in the Indian Air Force cables and communication, and is always held by the highest-ranking air officer, an Air Chief Marshal.

This is a five-star rank and is equivalent to a Field Marshal in the Army and Admiral of the Fleet in the Navy.

List of Chiefs of Air Staff :

Name Period
Sir Thomas Elmhirst 15 August 1947-21 February 1950
Sir Ronald Lvelaw Chapman   22 February 1950-9 December 1951
Sir Gerald Gibbs 10 December 1951-31 March 1954
S. Mukherjee 1 April 1954-8 November 1960
A.M.Engineer 1 December 1960-31 July 1964
Arjan Singh 1 August1964-15 July 1969
P.C. Lal 16 July 1969-15 January 1973
O.P. Mehra 16 January 1973-31 January 1976
H. Moolgavkar 1 February 1976-31 August 1978
I.H.Latif 1 December 1978-31 August 1981
Dilbagh Singh 1 September 1981-3 September 1984
L.M. Katre 4 September 1984-1 July 1985
D.A. La Fontaine 3 July 1985-31 July 1988
S.K. Mehra 1 August 1988-31 July 1991
N.C. Suri 1 August 1991-31 July 1993
S.K. Kaul 1 August 1993-31 December 1995
S.K. Sareen 31 December 1995-31 December 1998
A.Y. Tipnis 1 January 1999- 31 December 2001
Srinivasapuram Krishna Swamy 31 December 2001 - 1 January 2005
SP Tyagi 1 January 2005 - 31 March 2007
Fali Homi Major April 1, 2007 – 31 May 2009
Pradeep Vasant Naik June 1, 2009 – 30 July 2011
N A K Browne 31 July 2011 – 31 December 2013
Arup Raha 31 December 2013 – 31 December 2016
Birender Singh Dhanoa 31 December 2016 - 30 September 2019
Rakesh Kumar Singh Bhadauria 30 September 2019 - Present

Last updated on: 04/11/2019

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Chiefs of Naval Staff


The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy. The position is abbreviated CNS in Indian Navy cables and communication, and is always held by a full admiral.

No. Name Appointment Date Left Office
1 Rear Admiral John Talbot Savignac Hall August 15, 1947 August 14, 1948
2 Admiral Sir William Edward Parry August 14, 1948 October 13, 1951
3 Admiral Sir Charles Thomas Mark Pizey October 13, 1951 July 21, 1955
4 Vice Admiral Sir Stephen Hope Carlill July 21, 1955 April 21, 1958
5 Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari April 22, 1958 June 4, 1962
6 Vice Admiral Bhaskar S. Soman June 4, 1962 March 3, 1966
7 Admiral A. K. Chatterji March 3, 1966 February 28, 1970
8 Admiral S. M. Nanda February 28, 1970 February 28, 1973
9 Admiral S. N. Kohli February 28, 1973 February 29, 1976
10 Admiral J. L. Cursetji March 1, 1976 February 28, 1979
11 Admiral R. L. Pereira March 1, 1979 February 28, 1982
12 Admiral O. S. Dawson March 1, 1982 November 30, 1984
13 Admiral R. H. Tahiliani December 1, 1984 November 30, 1987
14 Admiral J. G. Nadkarni December 1, 1987 November 30, 1990
15 Admiral Laxminarayan Ramdas December 1, 1990 September 30, 1993
16 Admiral Vijai Singh Shekhawat October 1, 1993 September 30, 1996
17 Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat October 1, 1996 December 30, 1998
18 Admiral Sushil Kumar December 30, 1998 December 29, 2001
19 Admiral Madhvendra Singh December 29, 2001 July 31, 2004
20 Admiral Arun Prakash July 31, 2004 October 31, 2006
21 Admiral Sureesh Mehta October 31, 2006 August 31, 2009
22 Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma August 31, 2009 August 31, 2012
23 Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi August 31, 2012 February 26, 2014
24 Vice-Admiral Robin K Dhowan 26 February 2014 17 April 2014
25 Admiral Robin K Dhowan April 17, 2014 31 May 2016
26 Admiral Sunil Lanba 31 May 2016 31 May 2019
27 Admiral Karambir Singh 31 May 2019 present

Last updated on: 04/11/2019

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Chiefs of Army Staff


The Chief of the Army Staff is the professional head, commander, and usually the highest-ranking military officer of the Indian Army. The position is abbreviated as COAS in Indian Army, and is always held by a full general.

The office of the Chief of the Army Staff was created through The Commanders-In-Chief (Change in Designation) Act of the Indian Parliament in 1955. It replaced the erstwhile office of the Commander-in-Chief, Army.

The office is based at South Block of the Central Secretariat at Raisina Hill, New Delhi.

Appointments to the office are made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC). The COAS reaches superannuation upon three years in the office or at the age of 62, whichever is earlier.

The rank of Commander-in-Chief, India was established in 1748 to designate the commander of all forces of East India Company.

After 1857 the Commander-in-Chief become the supreme commander of British Indian Army. The Commander-in-Chief was closely in contact with Office of the Viceroy of India.

After partition in 1947 the post of Commander-in-Chief was divided into- Commander-in-Chief of Indian Army, Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army and Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in India and Pakistan.

In 1955 the post of Commander-in-Chief was abolished and replaced by Chief of Army Staff.

List of Chiefs of Army Staff :

Name Period
General Maharaj Rajendra Sinhji 1 April 1955-14 May 1955
General S.M.Srinagesh 15 May 1955-7 May 1957
LGeneral K.S. Thimayya 8 May 1957-7 May 1961
General R.N. Thapar 8 May 1961-19 November 1962
General J.N. Choudhuri 20 November 1962-7 June 1966
General P.P. Kumaramangalam 8 June 1966-7 June 1969
General S.H.F.J. Manekshaw 8 June 1969-31 December 1972
Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw 1 January 1973-14 January 1973
General G.G.Bewoor 15 January 1973-31 May 1975
General T.N. Raina 1 June 1975-31 May 1978
General O.P. Malhotra 1 June 1978-31 May 1981
General K.V.Krishna Rao 1 June 1981-31 July 1983
General A.S.Vaidya 1 August 1983-31 January 1986
General K.Sunderji 1 February 1986-30 April 1988
General V.N.Sharma 1 May 1988-30 June 1990
General S.F.Rodrigues 1 July 1990-30 June 1993
General B.C.Joshi 1 July 1993-18 November 1994
General S.Roychowdhury 22 November 1994-30 September 1997
General V.P.Malik 1 October 1997-30 September 2000
General S. Padmanabhan 1 October 2000- 31December 2002.
General N.C.Vij 31 December 2002 - 31 January 2005
General J J Singh 01 Feb 2005 to 30 Sep 2007
Deepak Kapoor 30 September 2007 to 30 March 2010
General VK Singh 31 March 2010 - 31 May 2012
General Bikram Singh 31 May 2012 - 31 July 2014
General Dalbir Singh 1 August 2014 - 31 December 2016
General Bipin Rawat 31 December 2016 - present

Last updated on: 04/11/2019

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Commander-in-chief


The Supreme Command of the Armed Forces vests in the President, although effective executive power and responsibility for national defence resides with the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. 

This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence headed by Defence Minister, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country.

On August 15, 1947, each Service was placed under its own Chief Commander. 

In 1955, the three Service Chiefs were redesignated as the Chief of the Army Staff (General), the Chief of the Naval Staff (Admiral) and the Chief of the Air Staff (Air Chief Marshal) with President of India as supreme commander.

Commanders-In-Chief
Name Tenure

General Sir Roy Bucher
1 January 1948-14 January 1949

General (later Field Marshal) K.M. Cariappa
15 January 1949-14 January 1953

General Maharaj Rajendra Sinhji
15 January 1953-31 March 1955
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Attorney-Generals of India


The Attorney General for India is the Indian government's chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court of India.

The Attorney General for India is appointed by the President of India under Article 76(1) of the Constitution of India and holds office during the pleasure of the President. He must be a person qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court.

The Attorney General is responsible for giving advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of legal character as may be referred or assigned to him by the President.

The Attorney General has the right of audience in all Courts in India as well as the right to participate in the proceedings of the Parliament, though not to vote.

The Attorney General appears on behalf of Government of India in all cases(including suits, appeals and other proceedings) in the Supreme Court in which Government of India is concerned.

He/She also represents the Government of India in any reference made by the President to the Supreme Court under Article 143 of the Constitution. The Attorney General is assisted by a Solicitor General and four Additional Solicitors General.

The Attorney General is to be consulted only in legal matters of real importance and only after the Ministry of Law has been consulted. All references to the Attorney General are made by the Ministry of Law.

The Attorney General can accept briefs but cannot appear against the Government. He/She cannot defend an accused in the criminal proceedings and accept the directorship of a company without the permission of the Government.

Unlike the Attorney General of the United States, the Attorney General of India does not have any executive authority, and is not a political appointee; those functions are performed by the Law Minister of India.

The Attorney General of India, like an Advocate General of a State is not supposed to be a political appointee, in spirit, but this is not the case in practice. Every time a party comes to power in the general elections, in India, all the law officers resign, and law officers loyal to the new party are appointed.


Attorney General
Term Incumbent Prime Minister

M. C. Setalvad
28.01.1950- 01.03.1963 Jawaharlal Nehru

C.K. Daphtary
02.03.1963 - 30.10.1968 Jawaharlal Nehru

Niren De
01.11.1968 - 31.03.1977 Indira Gandhi

S.V. Gupte
01.04.1977 - 08.08.1979 Morarji Desai

L.N. Sinha
09.08.1979 - 08.08.1983 Indira Gandhi

K. Parasaran
09.08.1983 - 08.12.1989 Indira Gandhi;
Rajiv Gandhi

Soli Sorabjee
09.12.1989 - 02.12.1990 V.P. Singh;
Chandra Shekhar

G. Ramaswamy
03.12.1990 - 23.11.1992 Chandra Shekhar;
P. V. Narasimha Rao

Milon K. Banerji
21.11.1992 - 08.07.1996 P. V. Narasimha Rao

Ashok Desai
09.07.1996 - 06.04.1998 H. D. Devegowda;
Inder Kumar Gujral

Soli Sorabjee
07.04.1998 - 04.06.2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Milon K. Banerji
05.06.2004 - 07.06.2009 Manmohan Singh

Goolam Essaji Vahanvati
08.06.2009 -11 June 2014 Manmohan Singh

Mukul Rohatgi
12 June 2014 – 18 June 2017 Narendra Damodardas Modi

K. K. Venugopal
1 July 2017 – present Narendra Damodardas Modi

Last updated on: 04/11/2019

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Comptroller and Auditor General of India


The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India  is an authority, established by the Constitution of India, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government.

The CAG is also the external auditor of government-owned companies. The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees, which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures.

The CAG of India is also the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department, which has over 58,000 employees across the country.

The CAG is ranked 9th and enjoys the same status as a judge of Supreme Court of India in Indian order of precedence.

Duties of the CAG :

As per the provisions of the constitution, the CAG's (DPC) (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act, 1971 was enacted. As per the various provisions, the duties of the CAG include the audit of :
  • Receipts and expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India and of the State and Union Territory having legislative assembly.
  • Trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts and balance sheets, and other subsidiary accounts kept in any Government department; Accounts of stores and stock kept in Government offices or departments.
  • Government companies as per the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Corporations established by or under laws made by Parliament in accordance with the provisions of the respective legislation.
  • Authorities and bodies substantially financed from the Consolidated Funds of the Union and State Governments. Anybody or authority even though not substantially financed from the Consolidated Fund, the audit of which may be entrusted to the C&AG.
  • Grants and loans given by Government to bodies and authorities for specific purposes. 
  • Entrusted audits e.g. those of Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies under Technical Guidance & Support (TGS).

List of CAG in India :

No. CAG of India From To
1 V. Narahari Rao 1948 1954
2 A. K. Chanda 1954 1960
3 A. K. Roy 1960 1966
4 S. Ranganathan 1966 1972
5 A. Bakshi 1972 1978
6 Gian Prakash 1978 1984
7 T. N. Chaturvedi 1984 1990
8 C. G. Somiah 1990 1996
9 V. K. Shunglu 1996 2002
10 V. N. Kaul 2002 2008
11 Vinod Rai 2008 2013
12 Shashi Kant Sharma 2013 2017
13 Rajiv Mehrishi 2017 Incumbent

Last updated on: 04/11/2019

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Chairmen of UPSC


The Union Public Service Commission, commonly abbreviated as UPSC, is India's premier central recruiting agency.

It is responsible for appointments to and examinations for All India services and group A & group B of Central services.

Established on 1 October 1926 as Public Service Commission, it was later reconstituted as Federal Public Service Commission by the Government of India Act, 1935; only to be renamed as today's Union Public Service Commission after the independence.

The Commission consists of a chairman and other members appointed by The President of India. Usually, the Commission consists of 9 to 11 members including the chairman.

Every member holds office for a term of six years or until he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier.

List of UPSC Chairmen :

Name Tenure
Sir Ross Barker 1926-1932
Sir David Petrie August 1932-1936
Sir Eyre 1937-1942
Sir F.W. Robertson 1942-1947
Sh. H.K. Kripalani 1 April 1947-13 January 1949
Sh. R.N. Banerjee 14 January 1949-9 May 1955
Sh. N. Govindarajan 10 May 1955-9 December 1955
Sh. V.S. Hejmadi 10 December 1955-9 December 1961
Sh. B.N. Jha 11 December 1961-22 February 1967
Sh. K.R. Damle 18 April 1967-2 March 1971
Sh. R.C.S. Sarkar 11 May 1971-1 February 1973
Dr. A.R. Kidwai 5 February 1973-4 February 1979
Dr. M.L. Shahare 16 February 1979-16 February 1985
Sh. H.K.L. Capoor 18 February 1985-5 March 1990
Sh. J.P. Gupta 05 March 1990-2 June 1992
Smt. R.M. Bathew (Kharbuli) 23 September 1992-23 August 1996
Sh. S.J.S. Chhatwal 23 August 1996-30 September 1996
Sh. J.M. Qureshi 30 September 1996-11 December 1998
Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Surinder Nath 11 December 1998-25 June 2002
Sh. P.C. Hota 25 June 2002-8 September 2003
Sh. Mata Prasad 08 September 2003-04 January 2005
Dr. S.R. Hashim 04 January 2005-01 April 2006
Sh. Gurbachan Jagat 01 April 2006-30 June 2007
Subir Dutta 30 June 2007 - 16 August 2008
Prof. D.P. Agrawal 16 August 2008 - August 2014
Rajni Razdan 16 August 2014 - 21 November 2014
Deepak Gupta 22 November 2014 - 20 September 2016
Alka Sirohi 21 September 2016 - 3 January 2017
David R. Syiemlieh 4 January 2017 - 21 January 2018
Vinay Mittal 22 January 2018 - 19 June 2018
Arvind Saxena (acting) 20 June 2018 - 28 November 2018
Arvind Saxena 28 November 2018 - present

Last updated on: 01/11/2019

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Governor of the RBI


The Governor of the Reserve Bank of India is the Chief Executive Officer of India's central bank and the ex-officio chairperson of its Central Board of Directors.  

Indian Rupee currency notes, issued by the Reserve Bank of India, bear the governor's signature.  

Since its establishment in 1935 by the British colonial government, the RBI has been headed by twenty-five governors. 

The Governor of Reserve Bank of India is a member of the Strategic Policy Group headed by National Security Advisor. It is a crucial wing of National Security Council.  

The term of office typically runs for three years and can, in some cases, be extended for 2 years. 

The inaugural officeholder was the British banker Osborne Smith, while C. D. Deshmukh was the first Indian governor.  

Holding office for over seven yearsBenegal Rama Rau is the longest-serving governor, while Amitav Ghosh's 20-day term is the shortest. 

The bank's fifteenth governor, Manmohan Singh, later became India's thirteenth prime minister.
 

List of RBI Governors :

NoOfficeholderTerm startTerm end
1Osborne Smith1 April 193530 June 1937
2James Braid Taylor1 July 193717 February 1943
3C. D. Deshmukh11 August 194330 June 1949
4Benegal Rama Rau1 July 194914 January 1957
5K. G. Ambegaonkar14 January 195728 February 1957
6H. V. R. Iyengar1 March 195728 February 1962
7P. C. Bhattacharya1 March 196230 June 1967
8Lakshmi Kant Jha1 July 19673 May 1970
9B. N. Adarkar4 May 197015 June 1970
10Sarukkai Jagannathan16 June 197019 May 1975
11N. C. Sen Gupta19 May 197519 August 1975
12K. R. Puri20 August 19752 May 1977
13M. Narasimham3 May 197730 November 1977
14I. G. Patel1 December 197715 September 1982
15Manmohan Singh16 September 198214 January 1985
16Amitav Ghosh15 January 19854 February 1985
17R. N. Malhotra4 February 198522 December 1990
18S. Venkitaramanan22 December 199021 December 1992
19C. Rangarajan22 December 199221 November 1997
20Bimal Jalan22 November 19976 September 2003
21Y. Venugopal Reddy6 September 20035 September 2008
22D. Subbarao5 September 20084 September 2013
23Raghuram Rajan4 September 20134 September 2016
24Urjit Patel4 September 201611 December 2018
25Shaktikanta Das12 December 2018Incumbent

Last updated on: 01/11/2019

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Chief Election Commissioner of India


Election Commissioners of India are members of Election Commission of India, a body constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections in India to the national and state legislatures. The Election Commissioners are usually retired IAS or IRS officers.

Originally in 1950, the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner. Two additional Commissioners were appointed to the commission for the first time on 16 October 1989 but they had a very short tenure, ending on 1 January 1990.

The Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1989 made the Commission a multi-member body. The concept of a 3-member Commission has been in operation since then, with the decisions being made by a majority vote.

Chief Election Commissioner of India can be removed from his office by the Parliament with a two-thirds majority in both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha on the grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity. Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner. A Chief Election Commissioner has never been impeached in India.

The Chief Election Commissioner heads the Election Commission of India, a body constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections to the national and state legislatures and of President and Vice-President.

This power of the Election Commission of India is derived from the Article 324 of the Constitution of India. Chief Election Commissioner of India is usually a member of the Indian Civil Service and mostly from the Indian Administrative Service.

List of Chief Election Commissioners of India :

Name Tenure
1. Sukumar Sen ICS (b. 1899) 21 March 1950 to 19 December 1958
2. K. V. K. Sundaram 20 December 1958 to 30 September 1967
3. S. P. Sen Verma 1 October 1967 to 30 September 1972
4. Dr. Nagendra Singh 1 October 1972 to 6 February 1973
5. T. Swaminathan 7 February 1973 to 17 June 1977
6. S. L. Shakdhar 18 June 1977 to 17 June 1982
7. R. K. Trivedi 18 June 1982 to 31 December 1985
8. R. V. S. Peri Sastri 1 January 1986 to 25 November 1990
9. V. S. Ramadevi 26 November 1990 to 11 December 1990
10. T. N. Seshan 12 December 1990 to 11 December 1996
11. M. S. Gill 12 December 1996 to 13 June 2001
12. J. M. Lyngdoh 14 June 2001 to 7 February 2004
13. T S Krishnamurthy 8 February 2004 to 15 May 2005
14. B. B. Tandon 16 May 2005 to 29 June 2006
15. N. Gopalaswami 30 June 2006 to 20 April 2009
16. Navin Chawla 21 April 2009 to 29 July 2010
17. Shahabuddin Yaqoob Quraishi 30 July 2010 to 10 June 2012
18. V.S. Sampath 10 June 2012 to 15 January 2015
19. H. S. Brahma 16 January 2015 to 18 April 2015
20. Nasim Zaidi 19 April 2015 to 5 July 2017
21. Achal Kumar Jyoti 6 July 2017 to 22 January 2018
22. Om Prakash Rawat 23 January 2018 to 1 December 2018
23. Sunil Arora 2 December 2018 to Present

Last updated on: 01/11/2019

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Chief Justices of India


The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the head of the judiciary of India and the Supreme Court of India. The CJI also heads their administrative functions.

As head of the supreme court, the chief justice is responsible for the allocation of cases and appointment of constitutional benches which deal with important matters of law. In accordance with Article 145 of the Constitution of India and the Supreme Court Rules of Procedure of 1966, the Chief Justice allocates all work to the other judges who are bound to refer the matter back to him or her (for re-allocation) in any case where they require it to be looked into by a larger bench of more judges.

There are a total of 46 Chief Justices of India that have served since the establishment of the Supreme Court of India in 1950, which superseded the Federal Court of India.

The Federal Court of India came into being on 1 October 1937. The seat of the court was the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building in Delhi. It began with a Chief Justice and two puisne judges. The first Chief Justice was Sir Maurice Gwyer and the other two judges were Sir Shah Muhammad Sulaiman and M. R. Jayakar. It functioned until the establishment of the Supreme Court of India on 28 January 1950.

On the administrative side, the Chief Justice carries out the following functions: maintenance of the roster; appointment of court officials and general and miscellaneous matters relating to the supervision and functioning of the Supreme Court. However this convention has been broken twice. In 1973, Justice AN Ray was appointed superseding 3 senior judges. Also, in 1975 Justice MH Beg was appointed as the CJI superseding Justice HR Khanna.

List of Chief Justices of India :

S No. Name Office Tenure
1. Harilal J. Kania 26 January 1950 — 6 November 1951
2. M. Patanjali Sastri 7 November 1951 — 3 January 1954
3. Mehar Chand Mahajan 4 January 1954 — 22 December 1954
4. B. K. Mukherjea 23 December 1954 — 31 January 1956
5. S. R. Das  1 February 1956 — 30 September 1959
6. Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha  1 October 1959 — 31 January 1964
7. P. B. Gajendragadkar 1 February 1964 — 15 March 1966
8. A. K. Sarkar 16 March 1966 — 29 June 1966
9. K. Subba Rao 30 June 1966 — 11 April 1967
10. K. N. Wanchoo 12 April 1967 — 24 February 1968
11. M. Hidayatullah 25 February 1968 — 16 December 1970
12. J. C. Shah 17 December 1970 — 21 January 1971
13. S. M. Sikri 22 January 1971 — 25 April 1973
14. A. N. Ray 26 April 1973 — 27 January 1977
15. M. H. Beg  28 January 1977 — 21 February 1978
16. Y. V. Chandrachud 22 February 1978 — 11 July 1985
17. Prafullachandra Natvarlal Bhagwati 12 July 1985 — 20 December 1986
18. R. S. Pathak 21 December 1986 — 18 June 1989
19. E. S. Venkataramiah 19 June 1989 — 17 December 1989
20. S. Mukharjee 18 December 1989 — 25 September 1990
21. Ranganath Mishra 26 September 1990 — 24 November 1991
22. K. N. Singh 25 November 1991 — 12 December 1991
23. M. H. Kania 13 December 1991 — 17 November 1992
24. L. M. Sharma 18 November 1992 — 11 February 1993
25. M. N. Venkatachaliah 12 February 1993 — 24 October 1994
26. A. M. Ahmadi 25 October 1994 — 24 March 1997
27. J. S. Verma 25 March 1997 — 17 January 1998
28. M. M. Punchhi 18 January 1998 — 9 October 1998
29. A. S. Anand 10 October 1998  —  11 January 2001
30. Sam Piroj Bharucha 11 January 2001  —  06 May 2002
31. B. N. Kripal 06 May 2002  —  08 November 2002
32. G. B Pattanaik 08 November 2002  —  19 December 2002
33. V. N. Khare 19 December 2002  —  02 May 2004
34. S. Rajendra Babu 02 May 2004  —  01 June 2004
35. R. C. Lahoti 01 June 2004  —  01 November 2005
36. Yogesh Kumar Sabharwal 01 November 2005  —  13 January 2007
37. K. G. Balakrishnan 14 January 2007  —  11 May 2010
38. S. H. Kapadia 12 May, 2010  —  28 Sept, 2012
39. Altamas Kabir 29 Sept, 2012  —  18 July 2013
40. P. Sathasivam 19 July 2013  —  26 April 2014
41. Rajendra Mal Lodha 27 April 2014  —  27 September 2014
42. H. L. Dattu 28 September 2014 —  2 December 2015
43. T. S. Thakur 3 December 2015  —  3 January 2017
44. Jagdish Singh Khehar 4 January 2017 - 27 August 2017
45. Dipak Misra 28 August 2017 - 2 October 2018
46. Ranjan Gogoi 3 October 2018 - 17 November 2019
47. Sharad Arvind Bobde 18 November 2019 - 23 April 2021

Last updated on: 29/10/2019

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Speakers of the Lok Sabha


The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), the lower house of the Parliament of India.

Serving for a term of five years, the speaker chosen from sitting members of the Lok Sabha (House of the People), and is by convention a member of the ruling party or alliance.

The date of election of the Speaker is fixed by the President. Newly elected Members of Parliament from the Lok Sabha elect the Speaker among themselves.

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha conducts the business in house, and decides whether a bill is a money bill or not.

They maintain discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for unruly behaviour by suspending them. They also permit the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions such as a motion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting.

Further, all comments and speeches made by members of the House are addressed to the Speaker. The Speaker also presides over the joint sitting of both houses of the Parliament of India.

The counterpart of the Speaker in the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States) is its Chairperson; the Vice-President of India is the ex-officio chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.

On the order of precedence, the Speaker of Lok Sabha ranks sixth, along with the Chief Justice of India. The Speaker is answerable to the House.

Both the Speaker and Deputy Speaker may be removed by a resolution passed by the majority of the members.

Lok Sabha Speaker can be elected by President on nomination basis.


Name Term
From To Length Lok Sabha
Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar 15 May 195227 February 19563 years, 288 days1st
M. A. Ayyangar 8 March 195610 May 19571 year, 63 days
11 May 195716 April 19624 years, 340 days2nd
Hukam Singh17 April 196216 March 19674 years, 333 days3rd
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 17 March 196719 July 19692 years, 124 days4th
Gurdial Singh Dhillon8 August 196919 March 19711 year, 221 days
22 March 19711 December 19754 years, 254 days5th
Bali Ram Bhagat15 January 197625 March 19771 year, 69 days
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy26 March 197713 July 1977109 days6th
K. S. Hegde21 July 197721 January 19802 years, 184 days
Balram Jakhar22 January 198027 October 19843 years, 358 days7th
Balram Jakhar16 January 198518 December 19894 years, 336 days8th
Rabi Ray19 December 19899 July 19911 year, 202 days9th
Shivraj Patil10 July 199122 May 19964 years, 317 days10th
P. A. Sangma23 May 199623 March 19981 year, 304 days11th
G. M. C. Balayogi24 March 199819 October 19991 year, 209 days12th
22 October 19993 March 20022 years, 132 days13th
Manohar Joshi10 May 20022 June 20042 years, 23 days
Somnath Chatterjee4 June 200431 May 20094 years, 361 days14th
Meira Kumar4 June 20094 June 20145 years, 0 days15th
Sumitra Mahajan6 June 201416 June 20195 years, 10 days16th
Om Birla19 June 2019Incumbent   ------17th

Last updated on: 29/10/2019

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Finance Ministers of India


The Minister of Finance, also known as the Finance Minister of India is a cabinet position in the Government of India and heads the Ministry of Finance.

The key duty of the Finance Minister is to present the annual Union Budget in Parliament, which details the government's plan for taxation and spending in the coming financial year.

Through the Budget, the finance minister also outlines the allocations to different ministries and departments.

The current Finance Minister of India is Nirmala Sitharaman.

List of Finance Ministers of India :


Finance Minister Term
R. K. Shanmukham Chetty 1947-1949
John Mathai 1949-1951
Chintamanrao Deshmukh 1951-1957
T. T. Krishnamachari 1957-1958
Jawaharlal Nehru 1958-1959
Morarji Desai 1959-1964
T. T. Krishnamachari 1964-1965
Sachindra Chaudhuri 1965-1967
Morarji Desai 1967-1970
Indira Gandhi 1970-1971
Yashwantrao Chavan 1971-1975
C. Subramaniam 1975-1977
H M Patel 1977-1979
Choudhary Charan Singh 1979-1980
Ramaswamy Venkataraman 1980-1982
Pranab Mukherjee 1982-1985
V.P. Singh 1985-1987
S.B. Chavan 1987-1989
Madhu Dandavate 1989-1990
Yashwant Sinha 1990-1991
Manmohan Singh 1991-1996
P.Chidambaram 1996-1998
Yashwant Sinha 1998-2002
Jaswant Singh 2002-2004
P.Chidambaram May 2004 - Nov 2008
Manmohan Singh Dec 2008 - Jan 2009
Pranab Mukherjee Feb 2009 - June 2012
Manmohan Singh 26 June 2012 - 31 July 2012
P.Chidambaram 31 July 2012 -26 May 2014
Arun Jaitley 26 May 2014 - 30 May 2019
Nirmala Sitharaman 31 May 2019 - present

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Deputy Prime Ministers of India

Name Period
1. Sardar Vallav Bhai Patel 1947-50
2. Morarji Desai 1967 -1969
3. Choudhary Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram (jointly) 1979
4. Yashwantrao Chavan 1979-1980
5. Chaudhari Devi Lal 1989-1990
6. Chaudhari Devi Lal 1990-1991
7. Lal Krishna Advani 2002-2004

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Prime Ministers of India


The Prime Minister of India (Bhārat Pradhānamaṃtrī) is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the President of India and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India — the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States)—but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha.

The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the government; and is the presiding member and chairperson of the cabinet.

The Union Cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha as per article 75(3) of the Constitution of India.

The first Prime Minister was Jawaharlal Nehru of the Indian National Congress party, who was sworn in on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence from the British Raj. Serving until his death in May 1964, Nehru remains India's longest-serving prime minister.

List of Prime Ministers of India :

Name Period
Jawaharlal Nehru August 15, 1947 to May 27, 1964
Gulzarilal Nanda May 27, 1964 to June 9, 1964
Lal Bahadur Shastri June 9, 1964 to January 11, 1966
Gulzarilal Nanda January 11, 1966 to January 24, 1966
Indira Gandhi January 24, 1966 to March 24, 1977
Morarji Desai March 24, 1977 to July 28, 1979
Choudhary Charan Singh July 28, 1979 to January 14, 1980
Indira Gandhi January 14, 1980 to October 31, 1984
Rajiv Gandhi October 31, 1984 to December 2, 1989
Vishwanath Pratap Singh December 2, 1989 to November 10, 1990
Chandra Shekhar November 10, 1990 to June 21, 1991
P. V. Narasimha Rao June 21, 1991 to May 16, 1996
Atal Behari Vajpayee May 16, 1996 to June 1, 1996
H. D. Deve Gowda June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997
Inder Kumar Gujral April 21, 1997 to March 19, 1998
Atal Behari Vajpayee March 19, 1998 to May 22, 2004
Dr. Manmohan Singh May 22, 2004 to May 26, 2014
Mr. Narendra Modi May 26, 2014 to till date

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Vice Presidents of India


The Vice President of India is the second highest constitutional office in the Government of India after the President.

Article 63 of Indian Constitution states that "There shall be a Vice President of India." The Vice President acts as President in the absence of the president due to death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations.

In accordance with Article 65 of the Constitution of India, the vice president discharges the functions of the president when a contingency arises due to the resignation, removal, death, impeachment or the inability of the president to discharge their functions.

They are also the ex officio chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.

The vice president is elected by an electoral college consisting of all the members of both houses of the Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote via a secret ballot conducted by the Election Commission of India.

Once elected the vice president continues in office for a five-year term, but can continue in office irrespective of the expiry of the term, until a successor assumes office. They can be removed by a resolution passed by an effective majority in the Rajya Sabha.

They are responsible for the protection of the rights and privileges of the members of the Council of States. They also decide whether a bill introduced in the Rajya Sabha is a financial bill or not.

The first vice president of India, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, took oath at Rashtrapati Bhavan on 13 May 1952. He later served as the president.

Krishna Kant has been the only one to die during his tenure.

On 11 August 2017, Venkaiah Naidu was sworn in as the 13th vice president of India.

The Vice President of India also acts as the Honourable Chancellor of Panjab University, Chandigarh.


List of Vice Presidents of India :

Name Period
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan May 13, 1952 to May 12, 1962
Dr. Zakir Hussain May 13, 1962 to May 12, 1967
Varahagiri Venkata Giri May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969
Gopal Swarup Pathak August 31, 1969 to August 30, 1974
Basappa Danappa Jatti August 31, 1974 to August 30, 1979
Muhammad Hidayat Ullah August 31, 1979 to August 30, 1984
Ramaswamy Venkataraman August 31, 1984 to July 27, 1987
Shankar Dayal Sharma September 3, 1987 to July 24, 1992
Kocheril Raman Narayanan August 21, 1992 to July 24, 1997
Krishan Kant August 21, 1997 to July 27, 2002
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat August 19, 2002 to 21 July 2007
Shri Mohd. Hamid Ansari 11th August 2007 to 11th August 2017
Venkaiah Naidu 11th August 2017 to (Incumbent)

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Presidents of India


The president of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

The president is referred to as the first citizen of India. Although vested with these powers by the Constitution of India, the position is largely a ceremonial one and executive powers are de facto exercised by the prime minister.

The president is elected by the Electoral College composed of elected members of the parliament houses, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, and also members of the Vidhan Sabha, the state legislative assemblies.

Presidents may remain in office for a tenure of five years, as stated by article 56, part V, of the Constitution of India. In the case where a president's term of office is terminated early or during the absence of the president, the vice president assumes office. By article 70 of part V, the parliament may decide how to discharge the functions of the president where this is not possible, or in any other unexpected contingency.

Rajendra Prasad, the first president of India, is the only person to have held office for two terms.

The 12th president, Pratibha Patil, is the first woman to hold the office, elected in 2007.

On 25 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind took office as the 14th president of India.


List of Presidents of India :


Name Took office Left office
Dr Rajendra Prasad 26 January 1950 13 May 1962
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13 May 1962 13 May 1967
Zakir Hussain 13 May 1967 3 May 1969
Varahagiri Venkata Giri 3 May 1969 20 July 1969
Muhammad Hidayatullah 20 July 1969 24 August 1969
Varahagiri Venkata Giri 24 August 1969 24 August 1974
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 24 August 1974 11 February 1977
Basappa Danappa Jatti 11 February 1977 25 July 1977
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 25 July 1977 25 July 1982
Giani Zail Singh 25 July 1982 25 July 1987
Ramaswamy Venkataraman 25 July 1987 25 July 1992
Shankar Dayal Sharma 25 July 1992 25 July 1997
Kocheril Raman Narayanan 25 July 1997 25 July 2002
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 25 July 2002 25 July 2007
Pratibha Patil 25 July 2007 25 July 2012
Pranab Mukherjee25 July 2012 25 July 2017
Ram Nath Kovind25 July 2017 Incumbent (Term ends on 25 July 2022)

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Governors - General and Viceroys of India

Name From Date To Date
The Viscount Canning 1 November 1858 21 March 1862
The Earl of Elgin 21 March 1862 20 November 1863
Sir Robert Napier (acting) 21 November 1863 2 December 1863
Sir William Denison (acting) 2 December 1863 12 January 1864
Sir John Lawrence, Bt 12 January 1864 12 January 1869
The Earl of Mayo 12 January 1869 8 February 1872
Sir John Strachey (acting) 9 February 1872 23 February 1872
The Lord Napier (acting) 24 February 1872 3 May 1872
The Lord Northbrook 3 May 1872 12 April 1876
The Lord Lytton 12 April 1876 8 June 1880
The Marquess of Ripon 8 June 1880 13 December 1884
The Earl of Dufferin 13 December 1884 10 December 1888
The Marquess of Lansdowne 10 December 1888 11 October 1894
The Earl of Elgin 11 October 1894 6 January 1899
The Lord Curzon of Kedleston 6 January 1899 18 November 1905
The Earl of Minto 18 November 1905 23 November 1910
The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst 23 November 1910 4 April 1916
The Lord Chelmsford 4 April 1916 2 April 1921
The Earl of Reading 2 April 1921 3 April 1926
The Lord Irwin 3 April 1926 18 April 1931
The Earl of Willingdon 18 April 1931 18 April 1936
The Marquess of Linlithgow 18 April 1936 1 October 1943
The Viscount Wavell 1 October 1943 21 February 1947
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma 21 February 1947 15 August 1947

Governors-General of the Union of India, 1947–1950 :

Name From Date To Date
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma 15 August 1947 21 June 1948
C. Rajagopalachari 21 June 1948 26 January 1950

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Governors-General of India

Name Governor from Governor until
Lord William Bentinck 1833 20 March 1835
Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt (acting) 20 March 1835 4 March 1836
The Lord Auckland 4 March 1836 28 February 1842
The Lord Ellenborough 28 February 1842 June 1844
William Wilberforce Bird (acting) June 1844 23 July 1844
Sir Henry Hardinge 23 July 1844 12 January 1848
The Earl of Dalhousie 12 January 1848 28 February 1856
The Viscount Canning 28 February 1856 1 November 1858

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Governors-General of Bengal

Name Governor from Governor until
Warren Hastings 20 October 1773 1 February 1785
Sir John Macpherson (acting) 1 February 1785 12 September 1786
The Earl Cornwallis 12 September 1786 28 October 1793
Sir John Shore 28 October 1793 18 March 1798
Sir Alured Clarke (acting) 18 March 1798 18 May 1798
The Earl of Mornington 18 May 1798 30 July 1805
The Marquess Cornwallis 30 July 1805 5 October 1805
Sir George Barlow, Bt (acting) 10 October 1805 31 July 1807
The Lord Minto 31 July 1807 4 October 1813
The Earl of Moira 4 October 1813 9 January 1823
John Adam (acting) 9 January 1823 1 August 1823
The Lord Amherst 1 August 1823 13 March 1828
William Butterworth Bayley (acting) 13 March 1828 4 July 1828
Lord William Bentinck 4 July 1828 1833

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