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Showing posts with label Indian States. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indian States. Show all posts

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi).

As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth-most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. 

The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam

Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.

The north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state of Telangana on 2 June 2014, and Hyderabad, the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. 

However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.

The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi) – the second-longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.

The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. 

The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.

The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. 

The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River, which has a GDP of US billion (as of 2010). 

The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹9.33 lakh crore (US$130 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹164,000 (US$2,400).

Andhra Pradesh ranks twentieth among Indian states in human development index.

The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year.

Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, and Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi. 

The state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta.

There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The coast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.

The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. 

Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam district is the only place in South India which receives snowfall because of its location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is also nicknamed as the "Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh" and the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".

The state has three Agricultural Economic Zones in Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables, Krishna district for mangoes, Guntur district for chilies.

The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".

Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form.

Indian Space Research Organisation's Satish Dhawan Space Centre is located at the Barrier Island of Sriharikota, in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.

Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the first largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command.

Andhra leads all other states in the production of Virginia Tobacco.

Nagarjuna Srisailam Sanctuary is the largest Tiger reserve in India. 

World's tallest masonry dam, Nagarjunasagar a 380 reservoir, and a 124 meter tall across the river Krishna, Andhra Pradesh's lifeline.

World's highest broad gauge rail track, Eastern Ghats rail route from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri is one the highest broad gauge tracks in the world.

World's richest temple,  Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in the town of Tirumala in Chittoor district is a very important pilgrimage site for Hindus throughout India.

Million year old caves, Borra Caves near Visakhapatnam believed to be a million years old.

Andhra Pradesh at a glance
No.of Districts 13
State Song Maa Telugu Thalliki
State Dance Kuchipudi
State Animal Black Buck
State BirdRose-ringed parakeet
State Tree Neem
State Flower Jasmine[8



Telangana is the eleventh largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census.

On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 28th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital. 

Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.

The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests covering an area of 27,292 km2. 

As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. 

During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema), which were handed over to the East India Company. 

The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. 

In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State (part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj) to form Andhra Pradesh. 

A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014.

The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.66 lakh crore (US$130 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹206,000 (US$3,000).

Telangana ranks sixteenth among Indian states in human development index. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. 

The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.

The cultural hearts of Telangana, Hyderabad, and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. 

The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading center and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world.  Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself.

The Golconda region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colorless Koh-i-Noor (owned by the United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colorless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul. 

Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, and Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship.

Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line. It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966.

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad.

World's largest one man collection, Salar Jung Museum at Hyderabad.

It is also home to Ramoji Film City which is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex at over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land.

South Asia's first lion safari, Nehru Zoological Park in the vicinity of Mir Alam Tank is picturesquely landscaped in its 120 hectares of rock strewn scrubland.

Hyderabad, houses Prasads IMAX theatre which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007.

Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana.

Area 112,077 km2
Population 35,193,978
Capital Hyderabad
No. of Districts 33
Official Language Telugu
Assembly seats 119
Lok Sabha seats 17
Rajya Sabha seats 7
Judiciary High Court for the State of Telangana
Emblem Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Charminar
Song Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam
Mammal Spotted deer
Bird Indian Roller
Flower Senna auriculata
Fruit Mango
Tree Prosopis cineraria
River Srisailam Dam on River KrishnaGodavari, Krishna River, Manjira River and Musi River
Sport Kabaddi



Ladakh is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constituting a part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.

It is bordered by Tibet to the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south, Jammu and Kashmir and Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north.

It extends from the Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram range to the north to the main Great Himalayas to the south.

The eastern end of Ladakh, consisting of the uninhabited Aksai Chin plains, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

In the past Ladakh gained importance from its strategic location at the crossroads of important trade routes, but since the Chinese authorities closed the borders with Tibet and Central Asia in the 1960s, international trade has dwindled except for tourism.

Since 1974, the Government of India has successfully encouraged tourism in Ladakh. Since Ladakh is a part of the strategically important Kashmir region, the Indian military maintains a strong presence in the region.

Ladakh is divided into two districts: Kargil and Leh.

The largest town in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil, each of which headquarters a district.

The Leh district contains the Indus, Shyok and Nubra river valleys. The Kargil district contains the Suru, Dras and Zanskar river valleys.

The main populated regions are the river valleys, but the mountain slopes also support the pastoral Changpa nomads.

The main religious groups in the region are Muslims (mainly Shia) (46%), Tibetan Buddhists (40%), Hindus (12%) and others (2%).

Ladakh is one of the most sparsely populated regions in India and its culture and history are closely related to that of Tibet. It is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and culture.

Until 2019, Ladakh was a region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed an act by which Ladakh became a union territory on 31 October 2019.

Under the terms of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, Ladakh is administered as a union territory without a legislative assembly or elected government.

The head of government is a Lieutenant Governor appointed by the President of India who is assisted by civil servants of the Indian Administrative Service.

Ladakh is under the jurisdiction of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court.

The union territory of Ladakh has its own police force headed by a Director General of Police.


Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constituting the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.

The region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the Line of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north respectively.

It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh, which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory.

After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, with effect from 31 October 2019.

At the time of its dissolution, Jammu and Kashmir was the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.

The act re-constituted the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with effect from 31 October 2019.

The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir consists of two divisions: Jammu Division and Kashmir Division, and is further divided into 20 districts.

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley.

The Kashmir valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and 15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India.

The Jhelum River is the major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley.

The Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the region.

The President of India appoints a Lieutenant Governor for the union territory.



Puducherry is a Union Territory of India.

It is a former French colony, consisting of four non-contiguous enclaves, or districts, and named for the largest, Pondicherry.

In September 2006, the territory changed its official name from Pondicherry to the vernacular original, Puducherry, which means "New village" in the Tamil language.

The territory is called "Pondichéry" in French. It is also known as The French Riviera of the East.

Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry, Karaikal and Yanam on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé on the Arabian Sea.

Puducherry and Karaikal are by far the larger ones and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala respectively.

The territory has a total area of 492 Puducherry (city) 293, Karaikal 160, Mahé 9 and Yanam 30

Area 479 sq km
Population 12,44,464
Capital Puducherry
No. of Districts 4
Principal Language Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English
and French
Assembly seats 30
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats 1
Judiciary High Court of Madras
at Chennai.
State Bird Koel
State Animal Squirrel
State Flower Cannonball Tree's flower
State Tree Bael Fruit Tree



Lakshadweep, also known as the Laccadive Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, 200 to 440 km off the coast of the South West Indian state of Kerala.

The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India.

The capital city is Kavaratti.

Ten of the islands are inhabited. Lakshadweep is the northern part of the erstwhile Lakshadweepa.

The islands are the northernmost among the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands, which are actually the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, in the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea.

The land area is 32

The lagoon area is about 4200

The territorial waters area is 20,000 and the economic zone area is 400,000

In 1956, the islands were constituted into a single territory, and since then, have been directly administered by the Union Government through an Administrator.

The Laccadives, Minicoy and Amindivi group of islands were renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973.

Lakshadweep, a group of coral islands consist of 12 atolls, three reefs and submerged sand banks. Of the 27 islands, only 11 are inhabited. These lie scattered in the Arabian Sea about 280 km to 480 km off Kerala coast between 8° and 12° 3' North Latitude and 71° and 74° East Longitude.

The main islands are Kavaratti, Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini.

Coconut is the only major crop with a production of 580 lakh nuts per year. The area under cultivation is about 2,598 hectares. Lakshadweep coconut is branded as an organic product. 

In India, Lakshadweep stands first in coconut production and productivity per hector is 22,310 per hector and average yield per palm per year is 97 nuts. The Lakshadweep coconuts are the highest oil content nuts in the world (72 percent).

The world’s first ever low temperature thermal desalination plant (LTTD) was opened in Kavaratti, one of the Indian Lakshadweep islands.
LTTD technology involves flashing relatively warm sea water (28-30 deg Celsius) inside a vacuum flash chamber and condensing the resultant vapour using deep sea cold water (7-15 °C). The cold water for the Kavaratti plant is drawn at a depth of 350m some 400m from the shore.
The technology was developed by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). It can be used not only to produce drinking water but also for power generation and air conditioning.

Area 32 sq. km
Population 64,429
Capital Kavaratti
No. of Districts 1
Principal Language Malayalam, Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and
Assembly seats None
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats None
Judiciary High Court of Kerala at Ernakulam.


Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu is a union territory in India.

Marathi, Gujarati and English are the official and main languages.

Diu District, an area of 40 km². The main settlement is the town of Diu.

Daman District, an area of 72 km². The main settlement is the city of Daman.

For over 450 years, the coastal enclaves of Daman and Diu on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman, and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on 19 December 1961, by military conquest; Portugal did not recognize the Indian annexation of these territories until 1974.

Goa, Daman, and Diu were administered as part of a single union territory until 1987, when Goa was granted statehood, leaving Daman and Diu as a separate union territory; each enclave constitutes one of the union territory's two districts.

Devaka beach in Daman and Nagoa beach in Diu attract visitors.

Daman and Diu
Area 112 sq. km
Population 2,42,911
Capital Daman
No. of Districts 2
Principal Language Gujarati
Assembly seats None
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats None
State Day High Court of Bombay
at Mumbai


Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in western India.

Nagar Haveli is wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, whereas Dadra is an enclave lying a few kilometres north of Nagar Haveli in Gujarat.

Its capital is Silvassa.

The territory lies some ten to thirty kilometres up-river from the city of Daman.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli are in the watershed of the Daman Ganga River, which flows through the territory.

The towns of Dadra and Silvassa both lie on the north bank of the river. The Western Ghats range rises to the east, and the foothills of the range occupy the eastern portion of the district.

The territory is landlocked, although the Arabian Sea coast lies just to the west in Gujarat.

The major spoken languages in the territory are Gujarati, Hindi and Marathi.

In 1783, Nagar-Haveli was given to the Portuguese as a compensation for the sinking of a Portuguese ship by the Maratha navy.

Then, in 1785 the Portuguese purchased Dadra. It was administered by the Portuguese Governor of Daman until 1954.

After India attained Independence in 1947, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the help of volunteers of organisations like the United Front of Goans (UFG), the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the National Movement Liberation Organisation (NMLO) and the Azad Gomantak Dal liberated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954.

From 1954 to 1961, the territory was administered by a body called the Varishta Panchayat of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

In 1961 when Indian forces took over Goa, Daman, and Diu, Mr. Badlani was, for one day, designated the Prime Minister of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, so that, as Head of State, he could sign an agreement with the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, and formally merge Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Republic of India.

A Lieutenant Governor administers the territory, which covers an area of 188 sq mi or 487 km² and consists of two talukas:
  •    Dadra
  •    Nagar Haveli
Dadra is the headquarters of Dadra taluka, comprising Dadra town and two other villages.

Silvassa is the headquarters of Nagar Haveli taluka, comprising Silvassa town and 68 other villages.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Area 491 sq km
Population 3,42,853
Capital Silvassa
No. of Districts 1
Principal Language Gujarati, Hindi
Assembly seats None
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats None
Judiciary High Court of Bombay
at Mumbai



Delhi, locally pronounced as Dilli or Dehli, officially National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest city by population in India, next to Mumbai.

Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries, and include the neighbouring satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Sonipat in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to the United Nations.

As of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.

Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.

Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index.

Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India.

The name Delhi is often also used to include urban areas near the NCT, as well as to refer to New Delhi, the capital of India, which lies within the metropolis.

Although technically a federally administered union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister.

A new capital city, New Delhi, was built to the south of the old city during the 1920s.

New Delhi, jointly administered by both the federal Government of India and the local Government of Delhi, is also the capital of the NCT of Delhi.

The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly, though with limited powers.

Located on the banks of the River Yamuna, The Delhi has been known to be continuously inhabited since at least the 6th century BC.

Delhi is also widely believed to have been the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas during the times of the Mahabharata.

After the British East India Company had gained control of much of India during the 18th and 19th centuries, Calcutta became the capital. When India gained independence from British rule in 1947, New Delhi was declared its capital and seat of government.

As such, New Delhi houses important offices of the federal government, including the Parliament of India, as well as numerous national museums, monuments, and art galleries.

In 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty established the Delhi Sultanate.

Qutb-ud-din started the construction the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam), the earliest extant mosque in India.

At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.

Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day.

The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.

The NCT has three local municipal corporations: Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board.

MCD is one of the largest municipal corporations in the world providing civic amenities to an estimated 13.78 million people.

The World Book Fair, held biannually at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world with as many as 23 nations participating in the event.

Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.

A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi, including All India Radio (AIR), one of the world's largest radio service providers, which offers six radio channels in ten languages.

The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially.

Dwarka, Asia's largest planned residential colony, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

The Indira Gandhi International Airport is the busiest airport in South Asia is Terminal 1D of the airport.

Important tourist places are Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutab Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narian Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun’s tomb, Lotus Temple, etc. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Limited conducts city sight-seeing and excursion tours. The Corporation has also introduced adventure tourism activities such as para-sailing, rock-climbing and boating in Delhi.

The Corporation has also developed DELHI HAAT, where beverages and food items of different states are available at one place. More such HAATs are planned in different parts of Delhi. The Corporation is also running Coffee Homes in different parts of Delhi. The "Garden of five Senses" has also been opened in the South District of Delhi, which attracts a lot of tourists visiting Delhi.

Area 1,483 sq. km
Population 1,67,53,235
Capital Delhi
No. of Districts 9
Principal Language Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu & English
Assembly seats 70
Lok Sabha seats 7
Rajya Sabha seats 3
Judiciary High Court of Delhi



Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab.

Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966.

It is bound on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana.

The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city.

It is occasionally referred to as The City Beautiful.

As the first planned city of India, Chandigarh is known internationally for its architecture and urban planning.

Chandigarh is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer.

The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories with the highest per capita income in the country.

As per a study conducted by Ministry of Urban Development, Chandigarh has emerged as the cleanest city in India.

There are numerous display gardens across the city, including the Rock Garden that is built from mostly from waste material and the Rose Garden. Other gardens include Garden of Annuals, Fragrance Garden, Hibiscus Garden, Chrysanthemum Garden, Botanical Garden and Shanti Kunj.

Chandigarh's Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by UNESCO as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in Istanbul. UNESCO inscription was under "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement". The Capitol Complex buildings include the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Punjab and Haryana Secretariat and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow and the Rock Garden.

The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the country. The union territory also heads the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index.

In 2015, a survey by LG Electronics, ranked it as the happiest city in India over the happiness index.

Area 114 sq km
Population 10,54,686
Capital Chandigarh
No. of Districts 1
Principal Language Hindi, Punjabi, English
Assembly seats None
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats None
Judiciary High Court of Punjab & Haryana
at Chandigarh
Emblem Open Hand Emblem
Mammal Indian grey mongoose
Bird Indian grey hornbill
Flower Dhak
Fruit Mango
Tree Mango Tree


Andaman & Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal and a Union Territory of India.

The territory's capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair.

The territory's population as per the most recent (2011) Census of India was 379,944. 

Added together, the total land area of the territory is approximately 6,496

After the evacuation of the Japanese in 1945, It became part of the Indian union in 1956.  It was declared a union territory on 1956.

The territory is located geographically 150 km north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and Burma by the Andaman Sea.

The Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, is situated between 6° and 14° North Latitude and 92° and 94° East Longitude. The islands located north of 10° north latitude are known as Andaman Group of islands while islands located south of 10° north latitude are called Nicobar Group of islands.

It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10° N parallel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west.

The climate of the islands can be defined as humid, tropical coastal climate.

The British used the islands as an isolated prison for members of the Indian independence movement. The mode of imprisonment was called Kala pani. The Cellular Jail in Port Blair was regarded as the "Siberia" of British India.

Pygmalion Point (also known as Parsons Point) which haas been renamed as 'Indira Point', is the southern most tip of India and not 'Kanyakumari' as is popularly believed.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been recognised as an eco-friendly tourist’s destination.

The Andaman Islands are home to the Sentinelese people, an uncontacted people. The Sentinelese are the only people currently known to not have reached further than a Paleolithic level of technology.

Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Area 8,249 sq. km
Population 3,79,944
Capital Port Blair
No. of  Districts 3
Principal Language Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Tamil,
Malayalam, Telugu
Assembly seats None
Lok Sabha seats 1
Rajya Sabha seats None
Judiciary High Court of Kolkata
( a circuit Bench at Port Blair )
Mammal Dugong
Bird Andaman Wood Pigeon
Flower Pyinma
Tree Andaman Padauk

Last updated on: 04/11/2019


West Bengal

West Bengal, renamed Poschim Bongo, is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth most populous.

It is also the seventh most populous sub-national entity in the world.

It is bordered by the countries of Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh and the states of Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam and has an area of 88,752

The capital is Kolkata (Calcutta).

Upto 1912, Calcutta was the capital of India.

Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal — a state of India — and East Bengal, which initially joined the new nation of Pakistan, before becoming part of modern-day Bangladesh in 1971.

The Kolkata metro is the country's first underground railway which was commissioned in 1995.

The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, part of NFR, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

It is the first state where 30% reservation of seats for women in the elected bodies was implemented.

Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureate and composer of India's and Bangladesh's national anthem.

Swami Vivekananda is considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and America and is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a world religion during the end of the 19th century.

Part of the world's largest mangrove forest Sundarbans is located in southern West Bengal.

The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science is the first research institute in Asia. C. V. Raman got Nobel Prize for his discovery (Raman Effect) done in IACS.

West Bengal was the first Indian state to constitute a Human Rights Commission of its own.

Calcutta Polo Club is considered as the oldest polo club of the world.

The Royal Calcutta Golf Club is the oldest of its kind outside Great Britain.

West Bengal has several large stadiums—The Eden Gardens is one of only two 100,000-seat cricket amphitheaters in the world.

The Calcutta Leather Complex at Bantala has already been declared as a Special Economic Zone. It is a perfect model of public private partnership, spread over around 1,100 acres of land and is steadily emerging as one of the largest projects of its kind in the world.

West Bengal at glance
Area 88,752 sq. km
Population 91,347,736
Capital Kolkata
No. of Districts 19
Principal Language Bengali
Assembly seats 294
Lok Sabha seats 42
Rajya Sabha seats 16


Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is a state located in the northern part of India.

With a population of over 200 million people,it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity.

It shares an international border with Nepal to the north along with the Indian state of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh to the north-west, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan on the west, Madhya Pradesh on the south, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand on the south east and Bihar on the east.

It is called India's 'sugarcane bowl'.

The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow and the industrial capital is Kanpur.

The state's high court is based at Allahabad with a bench in state capital Lucknow.

Uttar Pradesh has an very vital place in the culture of India; it is the birthplace of Hinduism and admirer of its derived Vaidic, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism beliefs, UP has been the ancient seat of Hindu religion, learning and culture, and has many important sites of Hindu pilgrimage.

Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh.

In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions - Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order, and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, where Buddha breathed his last.

Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectual excellence even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935.

In January 1950 the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.

Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-Operative is in Phulpur. IFFCO's Phulpur complex has two Urea production units and once was world’s largest fertiliser complex based on naphtha as feed stock.

The pilgrimage circuit includes the holiest of the Hindu holy cities on the banks of sacred rivers Ganges and the Yamuna: Varanasi (also considered world's oldest city), Ayodhya (birth place of Lord Rama), Mathura (birth place of Lord Krishna), Vrindavan (the village where Lord Krishna spent his childhood), and Allahabad (the confluence or 'holy-sangam' of the sacred Ganges-Yamuna rivers).

The city of Agra, gives access to three World Heritage Sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri.

Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It is cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".

Agra Fort is about 2.5 km northwest of its much more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a walled palatial city.

Fatehpur Sikri was the world famous 16th century capital city near Agra, built by the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great, whose mausoleum in Agra is also worth a visit. Dayal Bagh in Agra is a modern day temple and popular tourist sight. Its lifelike sculptures in marble are unique in India.

Agra's dubious modern attractions include Asia's largest Spa as well as Asia's first and only 6D theatre.

Kanpur is internationally known for its leather craft; shoes and other leather items are made here for the Indian market and exported to foreign countries as well. Kanpur is also known as Leather City of the World.

The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at Allahabad every twelfth year and Ardh kumbh Mela every sixth year. Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January when the people come in large number to have a dip in the holy Sangam.

Uttar Pradesh at glance
Area 2,40,928 sq. km
Population 19,95,81,520
Capital Lucknow
No. of Districts 71
Principal Language Hindi and Urdu
Assembly seats 403
Lok Sabha seats 80
Rajya Sabha seats 31
State Day November 1



Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state located in the northern part of India.

It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship.

It has an area of 53,566 km² .

Known for its natural beauty and wealth of the Himalayas, the Bhabhar and the Terai, the state was carved out of the Himalayan and adjoining north-western districts of Uttar Pradesh on 9 November 2000, becoming the 27th state of the Republic of India.

It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region on the north, Nepal on the east and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south, Haryana to the west and Himachal Pradesh to the north west.

The region is traditionally referred to as Uttarakhand in Hindu scriptures and old literature, a term which derives from Sanskrit uttara  meaning north, and Khand meaning country or part of a country.

Historically, Uttarakhand is believed to be the land where the Vedas and the Shastras were composed and the great epic, the Mahabharata, was written.

Rishikesh is widely considered the Yoga capital of the world.

Uttarakhand is also well known as the birthplace of the Chipko environmental movement, and other social movements including the mass agitation in the 1990s that led to its formation.

In January 2007, the name of the state was officially changed from Uttaranchal, its interim name, to Uttarakhand.

The provisional capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, which is also a rail-head and the largest city in the region.

The small hamlet of Gairsain has been mooted as the future capital owing to its geographic centrality but controversies and lack of resources have led Dehradun to remain provisional capital.

The High Court of the state is in Nainital.

About 90 per cent of the population of Uttarakhand depends on agriculture.

Indian National Parks in Uttarakhand include the Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest national park of India) at Ramnagar in Nainital District, Valley of Flowers National Park and Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli District, which together are a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Rajaji National Park in Haridwar District, and Govind Pashu Vihar National Park and Gangotri National Park in Uttarkashi District.

The world-famous Kumbh Mela/Ardh Kumbh Mela is held at Hardwar at every twelfth/sixth year interval.

Other prominent fairs/festivals are : Devidhura Mela (Champawat), Purnagiri Mela (Champawat), Nanda Devi Mela (Almora), Gauchar Mela (Chamoli), Baisakhi (Uttarkashi), Magha Mela (Uttarkashi), Uttaraini Mela (Bageshwar), Vishu Mela (Jaunsar Bhabar), Peerane-Kaliyar (Roorkee), and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra held every twelfth year.

Uttarkhand at glance

Area 53,484 sq. km
Population 1,01,16,752
Capital Dehradun
No. of Districts 13
Principal Language Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni
Assembly seats 70
Lok Sabha seats 5
Rajya Sabha seats 3
State Day November 9



Tripura  is a state in North-East India, with an area of 10,490 km2.

It is the third smallest state of India, according to area.

The capital is Agartala.

Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south, and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east.

The main languages spoken are Bengali and Kokborok.

It was formerly an independent Tripuri kingdom and was merged with independent India on 15 October 1949 by the Tripura Merger Agreement.

It was also known as "Hill Tippera" (anglicized version of Tipra) during the British Raj period and has a history of over 2500 years and 186 kings.

The state is connected with the rest of India by only one road (NH-44) that runs through the hills to the border of Karimganj District in Assam and then winds through the states of Meghalaya, Assam and North Bengal to Calcutta.

Tripura was a princely state. The Tripuri Kings (bubagra) held the title of Manikya and ruled Tripura for 3000 years until its merger with the union of India.

The Ganamukti Parishad movement led to the integration of the kingdom with India signed by the Regent Maharani on September 9, 1947 and the administration of the state was actually taken over by the Govt. of India on October 15, 1949 within Assam state.

Tripura became a Union Territory without legislature with effect from November 1, 1956 and a popular ministry was installed in Tripura on July 1, 1963.

On January 21, 1972 Tripura attained statehood.

Wildlife sanctuaries of the state include Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary, Gumti Wildlife sanctuary, Roa Wildlife Sanctuary, and Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary. National parks of the state include Clouded Leopard National Park, Sepahijola, and Rajbari National Park, Trishna. Gumti is also an Important Bird Area.

Tripura at glance

Area 10,491.69 km2
Population 3,671,032
Capital Agartala
No. of  Districts 4
Principal Language Bengali and Kokborok
Assembly seats 60
Lok Sabha seats 2
Rajya Sabha seats 1
State Day January 21


Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state.

Its capital and largest city is Chennai.

On January 14, 1969, Madras State changed its name to Tamil Nadu.

The Capital City Madras was renamed as Chennai in 1996.

Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.

It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south.

When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Orissa, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines.

In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning Tamil country.

Its official language Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2000 years.

The 760 km long kaveri is the biggest river in the state. 

Tamil Nadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers.

Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu.

Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Odissi are some dance forms presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances. At the Natyanjali Dance Festival, the temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the 'Cosmic Dancer'.

Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by the Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram and the Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram also called as Mamallaburam have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The state government owns the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Ltd. (TNPL), the world's biggest bagasse based Paper mills in Karur, as well as the world's sixth largest manufacturer of watches together with TATA at Hosur, under the brand name of "Titan".

Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world.

The ATP Chennai Open tournament held in Chennai every January is the biggest Tennis event in South Asia.

The SDAT – TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai, one of the very few modern squash facilities in South Asia, hosts international squash events.

Some of the places of tourist interest are: Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai (monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Annamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wild life sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near Chennai.

TamilNadu at glance

Area 1,30,058 sq. km
Population 7,21,38,958
Capital Chennai
No.of  Districts 32
Language Tamil
Assembly seats 234
Lok Sabha seats 39
Rajya Sabha seats 18
State Day April 14


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