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Showing posts with label NCERT Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NCERT Science. Show all posts

Gist of NCERT - Science - Part 2


Different Processes:
  1. The process that is used to separate grain from stalks etc. is threshing. In this process, the stalks are beaten to free the grain seeds.
  2. The process of conversion of water vapour into its liquid form is called condensation.
  3. A saturated solution is one in which no more of that substance can be dissolved. 

Parts of Plants: 
  1. Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs, trees, and climbers based on their height, stems and branches. The stem bears leaves, flowers and fruits. 
  2. A leaf usually has a petiole and a lamina. 
  3. The pattern of veins on the leaf is called venation. It can be reticulate or
    parallel. 
  4. Leaves give out water vapour through the process of transpiration. 
  5. Green leaves make their food by the process of photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
  6. Roots are mainly of two types: tap root and fibrous roots. 
  7. Plants having leaves with reticulate venation have tap roots while plants having leaves with parallel venation have fibrous roots. 
  8. The parts of a flower are sepals, petals, stamens and pistil.

The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings:
  1. The surroundings where plants and animals live, is called their habitat.
  2. The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
  3. There are many types of habitats, however, these may be broadly grouped as terrestrial (on the land) and aquatic (in water).
  4. Plants, animals and microorganisms together constitute biotic components.
  5. Rocks, soil, air, water, light and temperature are some of the abiotic components of our surroundings.

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Gist of NCERT - Science - Part 1


Animals which eat only plants are called herbivores.  
Animals which eat only animals are called carnivores. 
Animals which eat both plants as well as other animals are called omnivores.

Some diseases/disorders caused by deficiency of vitamins and minerals
Vitamins / Minerals Deficiency disease/disorder  Symptoms
Vitamin A  Loss of vision Poor vision, loss of vision in darkness(night), sometimes complete loss of vision.
Vitamin B1 Beriberi Weak muscles and very little energy to work.
Vitamin C Scurvy Bleeding gums, wounds take longer time to heal.
Vitamin D Rickets Bones become soft and bent.
Calcium Bone and tooth decay Weak bones, tooth decay.
Iodine Goiter Glands in the neck appear swollen.
Mental disability in children.
Iron  Anaemia Weakness

Notes on Fibre: 
  1. Fabrics are made from yarns, which in turn are made from fibres.
  2. Fibres are either natural or synthetic
  3. Cotton, wool, silk and jute are some natural fibres
  4. Nylon and polyester are some examples of synthetic fibres.
  5. Fibres like cotton and jute are obtained from plants.
  6. The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning.
  7. Fabric from yarns is made by weaving and knitting.


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