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Showing posts with label Sports and Games. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sports and Games. Show all posts

Facts and Terminology ( Sports )

Cricket Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Cricket was started in England in 1300 AD.
  • It started as a game of shepherds and became popular among other classes in 18th century AD.
  • After some time a club known as "Merylebone Cricket Club(MCC)" was formed at Lords in London. 
  • Cricket became popular in Australia due to British influence there.
  • The first official cricket test match was played in the year 1877 between Australia and England in Melbourne.
  • When some other countries started played Cricket Imperial Cricket Conference was formed in 1909 which gave birth to International Cricket Conference in 1956.
  • The first One Day International cricket match was played in the year 1971 between England and Australia in Melbourne.
  • The first World Cup on one day matches was played in 1975 in London. West Indies wont the World Cup beating Australia 17 runs.
  • The apex institutions of world cricket is the 'International Cricket Council'(ICC) and its headquarters is now in Dubai from August 1, 2005. Earlier it was in Lords(England).
  • Australia won the maximum of four World Cups till date.
  • In India Cricket was introduced by British royalty. Parsee community of India was the first to take part in Cricket in 1848.
  • Later on Parsee team visited England in 1886. Matches between European and Parsee teams, called Presidency matches, were started in Poona (now Pune) and Bombay (now Mumbai) 
  • Raja Bhupindra Singh of Patiala donated the Ranji Trophy in 1934 for the national championship of Cricket. 
  • The Board of Council for Cricket in India was formed in 1927.

Some Important terminologies of Cricket:- played on, Appeal, Bye, Leg Bye, Power Play, Follow on, Dusara, Beamer, Hoober Shot, Lost Ball, Duck worthLuis, Retired Hurt, Chinaman, Batsman, Bowler, Wicket Keeper, Fielder, LBW (Leg Before Wicket), Catch, Hit Wicket, Throw, Maiden over, Four, Sixer, Wide, Swing, Stroke, Cover,Mid on, Mid off, Mid Wicket, over the wicket, round the wicket, Leg spinner, Off spinner, Over throw, Over slip, Gulley, Cover point, Long off, Long on, Third man, Short pitch, Hook, Dead ball, Run out, Popping crease, Pitch, Bouncer (or Bumper), Full toss, Yorker, Yorked, Googley, Wicket Maiden, Snick, Duck, Hat-Trick, Rubber, The Ashes, Scoring a Ton etc. 

Badminton Facts & Terminology
  • Modern Badminton was probably developed in the 17th century and obtained its name from the place 'Badminton' in Gloucestershire (England).
  • The International Badminton Federation (IBF) was established in 1934.
  • The trophy for the international matches was named Thomas Cup after the name of the first president of the IBF Sir George Thomas. Thomas Cup competition (for men) in 1948-49. Uber cup Championship (for women) started in 1956.  
  • World Badminton Championship started in 1977. 
Some important terminology in Badminton :- Badminton court, End, Trans Lines, Back gallery, Service Court, Let, Forward stroke, Backward Stroke, Toss or Lob, Clear, Smash, Net Strokes, Rally, Setting, First hand or Second hand, Side out, Base of operation, Rotation, Long service, Net Fault, Double fault, Foot fault, Service break, Match Point, Set point, High service, Cross shot, Service change, Drive, Drop shot, Duce, Advance etc.

Basketball Facts & Terminology
  • The game Basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith of USA in 1891 at Springfield College. 
  • International Basketball Federation was set up in 1932.  
  • Basketball Federation of India was formed in 1950. Its first World Championship was played in 1950. 
Some important terminology in Basketball :- Dribbling, Front court, Second dribble, Two count stop, Travelling or shifting, Pivoting, Held ball, Jump ball, Violation, Foul, Feinting or Dodging, Shooting, Set shot, Ring, Guard point, Dead ball, Basket Rudnick, Hook Pass, Goal, Centre line, Free throw line, Onstead, Fast break, Lay-up shot, Man to man defence, Pack, Three point, Turn over, Assist, Throw, Goal Tending, Steal, Tap etc.

Football Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Football is also British origin. However, it is said that a game similar to Football was played in 500 BC by the Greeks of Spart and they called this game 'Harpaston'. 
  • The first football club of the world 'Sheffield Football Club' was founded in the year 1857 in England. Football was introduced in India by the Britishers in 1848 and the first football club of India was 'Dalhousie Club'. 
  • The indian Football Association, the oldest football association in the east, was formed in 1878. 
  • The Apex institution of football is 'Federation of Internationale de Football Association' (FIFA), which was formed by sever countries on May 21, 1904. 
  • The headquarters of FIFA is in Paris (France). In order to distinguish this game from carrying cum kicking game i.i Rugby, it was given the name of "Soccer". This name was given to this game (Football) by an association named London Football Association which was formed in 1863 in England. 
  • The Football World Cup, organised by the FIFA, is the biggest competition. 
  • Football was included as a competitive game in Olympic Games officially in 1908. 
  • India took part in the world Olympic Football Competition in 1948 in London.
  • Besides Olympic competitions, World Cup Football Championship were planned by two Frenchmen i.e. m jules Rimet and Henry Delaunary. 
  • Jules Rimet was president of the French Football Federation and remained president of FIFA from 1924 to 1954. 
  • The first World Cup was organised at Monte Video (Uruguay) in 1930. 
  • The Trophy for this championship was named as "Jules Rimet Cup". This trophy became the permanent property of Brazil, as this country had won the world title third time (1958, 1962 and 1970). 
  • From 1974 (Xth Championship of Germany) onwards, the trophy was named as "The FIFA World Cup". This was a new trophy cast in 18 ct. gold. 
  • In India Indian Football Association (IFA) organised National Football Championship. 
  • The trophy awarded in thier competition is called Santosh Tropyy, which was donated in the memory of Manmath Nath Roy Chaudhary of Santosh (now a part of Bangladesh) .
  • Durand Cup tournament was first organised at Shimla and is being held in Delhi since 1940. 
  • A new chapter was added to the annals of the country's (India's) soccer with the launch of the Football Players' Association (FPA) of India in Kolkata on August 13, 2006. 
  • FIFA announced (in April 17, 2007) an assistance of $1 million to Indian football by launching 'Win in India with India' project that will initially run for a period of four year.  
  • The All India Football Federation (AIFF) has started the 'Goal Project' in Manipur and the second was launced in Delhi. 
Some Important Terminology in Football :- Abbey, Dribble, Extra time, Full back, Half back, Striker, Centre, Forward, Penalty kick, Free kick, Scissor kick, Goal kick, Direct kick, Corner kick, Referee, Tie breaker, Hat trick, Hand ball, Sweeper, Back, Throw in, Hand-ball (Fault), Touch line, Place Kick, or Kick off, Direct Free Kick, Indirect Free Kick, Tackle, Off side, Sliding Tackle, Drop Ball, Sudden death, Penalty shoot out etc.

Hockey Facts & Terminology
  • 'Blackheath Rughy and Hockey Club' is the first hockey club in the world which was set up in the year 1861 in England. 
  • London ws the first city in England to popularize this game in the 1870s.
  • In the year 1886, Hockey Association of England was formed in London. 
  • the apex institution of hockey is 'Federation Internationale de Hockey', which was established on January 7, 1924, with headquarters at Vienna (Austria), which was later shifted to Paris (France). The first International Hockey Match was played between Wales and Ireland in Rayle on June 26, 1895. 
  • Hockey was introduced in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1908 in London. 
  • Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) was formed on the 7th November, 1925 at Gwalior. 
  • Since 1944, National Hockey Championship is organised by the IHF every year. 
  • All India Women's Hockey Federation was formed in 1947. 
  • India took that part in Olympics for the first time in 1928 (in Amsterdam Olympics) .
  • In Olympics, India has won the hockey title a maximum of 8 times. The first World Cup Hockey was played in Barcelona in 1971. 
Some important Terminology in Hockey :- Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Carry, Dribble, Dodge, Goal line, Green Card, Flick, Free hit, Face of Stick, Jab Stroke, Lung Stroke, Melle, Off side, Penalty shoot out, Short Corner, Striking circle or Shooting circle, Square pass, Tackling, Through pass, Under cutting, Stick, Penalty stroke, Scoop, Side line, Tie breaker, Penalty, Under cutting, Volley, Centre forward, Roll in, Push in, Shooting, Half volley, Full back etc.

Lawn Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • The game Tennis was introduced by Major Wingfeild in Wales in 1870.  
  • All England Championship (populary known as Wimbledon Championship) started in 1877 for men only. Tennis competitions for women (in Wimbledon Championship) were introduced in 1884.
Some important terminology in Lawn Tennis :- Ace, Advantage, A let, Back hand drive, Deuce, Chip Shot, Volley, Half Volley, Let fault, Foot fault, Double Fault, Smash, Service, Grand Slam, Singles sticks, Love, Slice.

Table Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • This game was started in England in 1880s. International Table Tennis Association' was established in 1926. 
  • The first match of the Table Tennis World Championship was played in 1927. 
  • Table Tennis was introduced in the Olympic Games much later in 1988 at Seoul (S. Korea).  
  • Table Tennis Association of India was formed in 1938. 
Some important terminology in Table Tennis :- Foil, End line, Late control, Flat hit, Block stroke, Service, Penholder grip, Back spin, Centre line, Half Court, Side spin, Swing stroke, Push Stroke, Rally, Let, Reverse, Top Spin, Drop shot, Lob, Chopped return, Counter hitting etc.

Vollyball Facts & Terminology
  • Volleyball, the game played with an inflated bladder and a high net was invented in 1895 at Holyoke Y.M.C.A.Gymnasium in United States of America by a Physical Director William J. Morgan. 
  • Its first name was 'MINTONNETTE' which was later named as Volleybal by Dr. A.T. Halsted of Springfield College because the ball had to be volleyed with hands from one side to the other. 
  • 'International Volleyball Association' was formed in 1947 with its headquarter in Paris (France). 
  • The first World Volleyball Championship was held in 1949 at Prague. 
  • Thr first Asain Volleyball Championship was held at Tokyo (Japan) in 1955 (India beats Japan in the final.) 
  • The Volleyball Federation of India was formed in 1950. 

Some important terminology in Volleyball :- Antennae, Attack hit, Back zone players, Dribbling, Libero, Front Zone players, Blocking, Smash, Rotation, Boosting, Net fault, Volley Pass, Forearm pass, Service, Hook serve, Set up, Referee etc. 


South Asian Federation (SAF) Games

South Asian Games (SAF Games or SAG & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games also known as SA games) are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from South Asia.

The governing body of these games is South Asian Sports Council (SASC), formed in 1983.

The motto of SAF games is "Peace, Prosperity and Progress".

At present, SAG are joined by eight members namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

The first South Asian Games were hosted by Kathmandu, Nepal in 1983 and have since been held every two years except for some occasions.

In 2004, it was decided in the 32nd meeting of South Asian Sports Council to rename the games from South Asian Federation Games to South Asian Games as the officials believed the word Federation was diminishing the emphasis on event and acting as a barrier in attracting crowd.

These Games are often hyped as the South Asian version of Olympic Games.

List of South Asian Games :

Year Games Host City Country
1984 I Kathmandu Nepal
1985 II Dhaka Bangladesh
1987 III Calcutta India
1989 IV Islamabad Pakistan
1991 V Colombo Sri Lanka
1993 VI Dhaka Bangladesh
1995 VII Madras India
1999 VIII Kathmandu Nepal
2004 IX Islamabad Pakistan
2006 X Colombo Sri Lanka
2010 XI Dhaka Bangladesh
2012 XII Delhi India
2014 XIII Islamabad Pakistan
2016 XIV Hambantota Sri Lanka

Last updated on: 18/10/2019


Olympic Games

The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition.

The Games are currently held every two years, with Summer and Winter Olympic Games alternating, although they occur every four years within their respective seasonal games.

For the 776 BC to AD 393 Games see Ancient Olympic Games. Originally, the ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894.

The IOC has since become the governing body of the Olympic Movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter.

Story Behind " The origin of the ancient Olympic Games is lost in the midst of pre-history, but for many centuries they were only a festival of the Greek people.

The Games were fest held in honour of the Greek god, Zeus in 776 BC in the plain of the kingdom of Elis, nestled in a lush valley between the Alpheus River and Mount Kronion, 15 km from the lonian Sea.

The Olympiad celebrated that year was considered as the first and was used to date subsequent historic events. But religious ceremonies and games were held in Olympia before that time.

The oldest sanctuary of Greece was there, the alter of the Great Mother of Gods, Rhea (Earth). On the day of the feast, the priest stood in front of the altar, ready to perform a sacrifice.

Women were forbidden to be present on one stadium (about 200 yds.) As soon as a signal was given they ran and the first to arrive at the altar received the torch from the priest's hand and lit the sacrifice fire."

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes.

Modern Olympic Games

The revival work of the Games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubertin nearly 1,500 years after the last of the ancient Games. He was born into a family of Italian origin which had settled in France.

It was on November 25, 1892, during a conference at Sorbonne about the history of physical exercises, that the first pronounced those famous six words in public "The Restoration of the Olympic Games" He said that the Games would ennoble and strengthen amateur sports to give them strength and lasting quality for an essential role in the world of modern education.

It was at the International Congress for the Study of the Propagation f the Principles of Amateurism held in Paris in June 1894 that the delegates led by Baron Pierre de Coubertin and associates unanimously voted to restore the Olympic Games and to create an International Olympic Committee to oversee them De Coubertin had planned to propose Paris for the site of the first modern Olympics in 900 but the enthusiasm and zeal of the delegates was so great that they insisted the first Games to be held in 1896 Games. Since then these Games are held every four years.

Olympic Symbol

It comprises five rings or circles, linked together to represent the sporting friendship of all people.

The rings also symbolise the continents- Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America.

Each ring is of a different colour i.e. blue, yellow, black, green and red.

The rings are meant to represent five continents viz., Africa (black), America (red), Asia (yellow), Australia (green) and Europe (Blue).

Olympic Flag

The Olympic flag, created in 1913 at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was solemnly inaugurated in Paris in June 1914 but it was raised over an Olympic stadium for the first time at the Antwerp used for the Winter Games.

These flags are made of white silk and contain above mentioned five interwined rings. From left to right the rings are blue, yellow, black, green and red.

Olympic Flame(Torch)

It was at the Amsterdam Games in 1928 that for the first time an Olympic flame was ceremonially lighted and burned in a giant torch at the entrance of the stadium.

The modern version of the flame was adopted in 1936 at the Berlin Games.

The Olympic flame symbolises the continuity between the ancient and modern games.

The torch, used to kindle the flame, is first lit by the sun's rays at Olympia, Greece, and then carried to the site of the Games by relay of runners.

Ships and planes are used when necessary. On July 15, 1976, space age technology was used to transport the flame from one continent to another.

Olympic Motto

The Olympic motto is "Citius-Altius-Fortius" (faster, higher, stronger). Rev. Father Didon (1840-1900), headmaster of a school near Paris and a great promoter of sports in the French Catholic colleges first used the motto and had it embroidered on the pennants of his school clubs.

This succinct definition of the philosophy of sport appealed to father Didon's friend, Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was responsible for the revival of the Olympic Games nearly 1,500 years after the last of the ancient Games.

It was adopted at his suggestion at the International congress for the "Study and Propagation of the Principles of Amateurism" on June 23, 1894, the same day on which the restoration of the Olympic Games and the creation of the International Olympic Committee were also decided.

Olympic Prizes, Medals and Certificates 

While in ancient times the Olympic heroes received a crown of olive branches for their exploits, modern Olympics Champions are rewarded with medals and certificates.

The winning athlete now receives a Gold medal, the athlete in the second place is awarded a silver medal and the third placed athlete in the second place is awarded a Silver medal and the third placed athlete wins a Bronze medal.

In addition, all athletes ranking from first to sixth receive a certificate. Each medal is 60 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. The first and second place medals are made of 92.5 percent silver and the medals for the first winner is then plated with 6 gram of fine gold. Thus this medal is not full gold. The third place medal is of bronze.

Olympic Mascot

It was introduced in 1972 at the 20th Olympics Games held at Munich and since then an Olympic Mascot is selected for a particular year and venue.

Olympic Order 

Instituted in 1974, the Olympic Order in a gold, silver or bronze decoration, awarded to a person who has rendered outstanding services or displayed the Olympic ideals.

Mrs Indira Gandhi was awarded this Order in 1983 by the IOC for her contribution to the organisation of the New Delhi Asiad (1982.)

Introduction of Events in the Olympics
Events Year
Archery 1900 at Paris (but not held from 1924-1968)
Athletics 1896 at Athens
Badminton 1992 at Barcelona
Basketball 1904 and 1928 - a demostration event
1936 at Berlin as a medal event
Boxing 1904 at St Louis
Canoeing 1936 at Berlin (for men)
1948 at London (for women)
Cycling 1896 at Athens (but not held in 1904)
Equestrian 1900 at Paris (but not held in 1904 and 1908)
Fencing 1896 at Athens (for men)
1924 at Paris (for women)
Football 1900 at Paris (but not held in 1932)
Gymnastics 1896 at Athens
Handball 1936 at Berlin as outdoor handball
1952 at Helsinki as demostration games
1972 at Munich as a medal event
Hockey 1908 at London (but not held in 1912 and 1924) for men
1980 at Moscow for women
Judo 1964 at Tokyo (but not held in 1968)
Modern Pentathlon 1912 at Stockholm as individual competition
1952 at Helsinki as team event
Rowing 1896 at Athens
1976 at Montreal for women
Shooting 1896 at Athens (but not held in 1904 and 1928)
Swimming 1896 at Athens for men
1908 at London, diving for men
1912 at Stockholm, swimming and diving for women
1900 at Paris (waterpolo)
Tennis 1924 at Paris (but not held later)
1988 at Seoul (returned as medal event)
Table Tennis 1988 at Seoul
Vollyball 1964 at Tokyo for men and women
Weightlifting 1896 at Athens
Wrestling 1896 at Athens (Greco-Roman)
1904 at St Louis (Free style)
Yachting 1900 at Paris

Medal Name Games Sport Event
2 Silver Norman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men's 200 metres
2 Silver Norman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men's 200 metre hurdles
1 Gold National team 1928 Amsterdam Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1932 Los Angeles Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1936 Berlin Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1948 London Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1952 Helsinki Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav 1952 Helsinki Wrestling Men's freestyle bantamweight
1 Gold National team 1956 Melbourne Field hockey Men's competition
2 Silver National team 1960 Rome Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1964 Tokyo Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze National team 1968 Mexico Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze National team 1972 Munich Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1980 Moscow Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze Leander Paes 1996 Atlanta Tennis Men's singles
3 Bronze Karnam Malleswari 2000 Sydney Weightlifting Women's 69 kg
2 Silver Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore 2004 Athens Shooting Men's double trap
1 Gold Abhinav Bindra 2008 Beijing Shooting Men's 10m Air Rifle
3 Bronze Sushil Kumar 2008 Beijing Wrestling Men's 66 kg Freestyle
3 Bronze Vijender Kumar 2008 Beijing Boxing Men's 75 kg

* IOC regards these medals as credited to India; however, International committees credit these medals to Great Britain.

Olympic Games host cities
Year Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games Youth Olympic Games
Olympiad Host city No. Host city No. Host City
1896 I Athens, Greece

1900 II Paris, France

1904 III St. Louis, United States

1906 III Athens, Greece

1908 IV London, United Kingdom

1912 V Stockholm, Sweden

1916 VI Berlin, Germany
Cancelled because of World War I

1920 VII Antwerp, Belgium

1924 VIII Paris, France I Chamonix, France

1928 IX Amsterdam, Netherlands II St. Moritz, Switzerland

1932 X Los Angeles, United States III Lake Placid, United States

1936 XI Berlin, Germany IV Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

1940 XII Tokyo, Japan →
Helsinki, Finland →
Cancelled because of World War II
V Sapporo, Japan →
St. Moritz, Switzerland →
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany →
Cancelled because of World War II

1944 XIII London, United Kingdom →
Cancelled because of World War II
V Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy →
Cancelled because of World War II

1948 XIV London, United Kingdom V St. Moritz, Switzerland

1952 XV Helsinki, Finland VI Oslo, Norway

1956 XVI Melbourne, Australia +
Stockholm, Sweden
VII Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy

1960 XVII Rome, Italy VIII Squaw Valley, United States

1964 XVIII Tokyo, Japan IX Innsbruck, Austria

1968 XIX Mexico City, Mexico X Grenoble, France

1972 XX Munich, West Germany XI Sapporo, Japan

1976 XXI Montreal, Canada XII Denver, United States
Innsbruck, Austria

1980 XXII Moscow, Soviet Union XIII Lake Placid, United States

1984 XXIII Los Angeles, United States XIV Sarajevo, Yugoslavia

1988 XXIV Seoul, South Korea XV Calgary, Canada

1992 XXV Barcelona, Spain XVI Albertville, France


XVII Lillehammer, Norway

1996 XXVI Atlanta, United States


XVIII Nagano, Japan

2000 XXVII Sydney, Australia


XIX Salt Lake City, United States

2004 XXVIII Athens, Greece


XX Turin, Italy

2008 XXIX Beijing, China


XXI Vancouver, Canada I (Summer)  Singapore
2012 XXX London, United Kingdom

I (Winter) Innsbruck, Austria

XXII Sochi, Russia II (Summer) Nanjing, China
2016 XXXI Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

II (Winter) To be determined

XXIII Pyeongchang, South Korea III (Summer) To be determined
2020 XXXII To be determined

III (Winter) To be determined

XXIV To be determined IV (Summer) To be determined

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) was established on June 23, 1894 in order to organize the Olympic Games.

This organization continues to be the ruling body of the Olympics.

List of the past and present presidents of the IOC:
2001-2013 Count Jacques Rogge (Belgium)
1980-2001 Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spain)
1972-1980 Michael Morris (Ireland)
1952-1972 Avery Brundage (United States)
1946-1952 J. Sigfrid Edström (Sweden)
1925-1942 Henri de Baillet-Latour (Belgium)
1896-1925 Pierre de Coubertin (France)
1894-1896 Dimitrios Vikelas (Greece)


Sports - Measurements

Length of court 44 feet
Width of the court 20 feet (for doubles) and 17 feet (for singles)
Height of the net 5 feet
Weight of Shuttle cock 4.74 to 5.50 gram
Overall length of the Racket 680 mm (2.5 ft) maximum
Overall width of the Racket 230 mm (9 inches) maximum
Overall length of the Racket head 290 mm (11.5 inches) maximum
Weight of the racket 85 to 140 grams

Length of the court 28 meter
Width of the court 15 meter
Height of the basket from ground 3.05 meter
Weight of the ball 600 to 650 grams

Length of Pitch22 yards (20.11 meters)
Length of Crease1.22 - 1.83 meters (4 ft)
Weight of Ball155 to 163 gram
Circumference of the Ball 22.4-22.9 cm (9 inch)
Length of Bat96.5 cm (38 inch)
Width of Bat10.8 cm (4.25 inch)
Length of the Stumps 71.1 cm (28 inch)
Length of Bells11.1 cm (each bail)

Length of the ground (Field)91 to 120 meters
Width of the ground (Field)45 to 91 meters
Weight of the ball396 to 453 grams
circumference of the ball98 to 71 cm

No. of Players 11 players in each team
Length of Playing field 91.44 meters
Width of the Playing field 50 to 55 meters
Weight of the Ball 155 to 163 grams
Circumference of the Ball 223- 224 cm
Colour of the Ball White
Weight of the Hockey (Stick) 280 grams (max)

Lawn Tennis
Length of the court 78 feet or 23.77 m (singles)
Width of the court 27 feet or 8.23 m (singles), 36 feet or 10.97 m (doubles)
Height of the net 3 feet (0.914 m)
Weight of the ball 56.0 to 59.4 gram
Maximum length of the frame of the racket 32 inches (81.28 cm)
Colour of the ball White or Yellow

Table Tennis
Length of the table 2.74 metre (9 feet)
Width of the table 1.52 metre (5 feet)
Height of the table 76 cn
Weight of the ball 2.4 to 2.53 gram
Diameter of the ball 37.2 to 38.2 mm
Colour of the ball White or Yellow

Length of Court 18 meter
Width of Court 9 meter
Weight of ball 250 -260 grams
Circumference of the ball 65-67 cm
Net 1m (+/- 3cm) wide and 9.5 m long
Net's height 2.43 m (for men) and 2.24 m (for women)
Ball Internal Pressure 0.40 to 0.45 Kg/cm

Length of the field 300 yards,
Width of the field 150 yards
Distance between the goals 250 yards
Distance between the goal points 8 yards

The number of squares on a chessboard 64
Colour of the squares White and Black

Diameter of the hole 4 inches

Water Polo
The Length and width of the field 30 X 20 yards

The distance of each base 90 feet
The distance of the base along with its hypotenuse 127 feet

Length and width of the ring Minimum 4.9X4.9 m square and maximum 6.10X6.10 m square

Wrestling :

In International Competitions there is a circular area with 9 metre diameter with circle in the centre of 1 metre diameter. Competitions played on a mattress, the mattress is 1:1 metre diameter high.


Number of Players in Famous Sports

Sports Number of Players


Rugby football



Kho Kho



Football (Soccer)




1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)

1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)

Table Tennis
1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)


Several individuals compete simultaneously






13 or 15

Several individuals compete simultaneously

Water Polo

Places Associated with Sports and Games

World Wide list of Places Associated with Sports and Games

Sport Associated Places

      Brooklyn (USA)


1.   Madison Square Garden (USA)

2.   Yankee Stadium, New Delhi
  Cricket 1.   Aden Park (Aukland)

2.   Brabourne Stadium (Mumbai)

3.   Chepauk Ground (Chennai)

4.   Eden Gardens (Kolkata)

5.   Ferozeshah Kotla Ground (Delhi)

6.   Green Park (Kanpur)

7.   Leeds (London, England)

8.   Lord's (London, England)

9.   Nehru Stadiums (Chennai and New Delhi)

10. Melbourne (Australia)

11. Old Trafford (Manchester, England)

12. Oval (London, England)

13. Wankhede Stadium (Mumbai)
  Football 1.   Brookland (England)

2.   Wembley (London)

3.   Blackheath (London)

4.   Twickenham (London)

5.   Corporation Stadium (Kolkata)

6.   Ambedkar Stadium (New Delhi)

7.   Nehru Stadium (New Delhi)

8.   Yuba Bharati Stadium (Kolkata)


Sanday Lodge (Scotland)

Greyhound Race
White City (England)
  Hockey 1.   Dhayn Chand Stadium (Lucknow)

2.   Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium (Hyderabad)

3.   Merdeka Stadium (Kuala Lumpur)

4.   National Stadium (Delhi)

5.   Nehru Stadium (Delhi)

6.   Sawai Man Singh Stadium (Jaipur)

7.   Shivaji Stadium (New Delhi)
  Horse Racing
1.   Aintree (England)—Grand National Race

2.   Doncaster (England)—Derby Race

3.   Epsom (England)—Derby Race
      Hurlingham (England)
      Bisley (England)
 Florence (Chadwick)
      Blackpool (England)
  Swimming and Rowing
1.   Cape Gris Nez (Cross-channel swimming)

2.   Putney-Mort-Lake (England)
1.   Wimbledon (England)

2.   Forest Hill (US)

Places with reference to India

Stadium Venue Sports

National Stadium
Mumbai Hockey & others

Wankhede Stadium
Mumbai Cricket

Brabourne Stadium
Mumbai Cricket

Indraprastha Stadium
Delhi Indoor games

Jawaharlal Nehru
Delhi Athletics

Firoz Shah Kotla
Delhi Cricket

Ambedkar Stadium
Delhi Football

National Stadium
Delhi Hockey & others

Talkatora Stadium
Delhi Swimming

Eden Garden
Kolkata Cricket

Ranjit Stadium
Kolkata Football

Green Park
Kanpur Cricket

Keenan Stadium
Jamshedpur Cricket

Chepauk Stadium
Chennai Cricket

Britain Derby

Black heath
London Rugby Football

Headingly, Manchester,
Britain Cricket

Lords, Ovel, Leeds
Britain Cricket

Britain Lawn Tennis

Roland Garros
France Lawn Tennis

Flushing Meadow
U.S Lawn Tennis

Britain Football


Britain Rugby

Britain Football


Cups and Trophies Associated with Sports and Games

Important List of Cups and Trophies
  • American Cup  : Yacht Racing
  • Ashes : Cricket
  • Benson and Hedges : Cricket
  • Canada Cup : Golf
  • Colombo Cup : Football
  • Corbitton Cup : Table Tennis (Women)
  • Davis Cup : Lawn Tennis
  • Derby : Horse Race
  • Grand National : Horse Streple Chase Race
  • Jules Rimet Trophy : World Soccer Cup
  • King's Cup : Air Races
  • Merdeka Cup : Football
  • Rydet Cup : Golf
  • Swaythling Cup : Table Tennis (Men)
  • Thomas Cup : Badminton
  • Uber Cup : Badminton (Women)
  • Walker Cup : Golf
  • Westchester Cup : Polo
  • Wightman Cup : Lawn Tennis
  • World Cup : Cricket
  • World Cup : Hockey
  • Reliance Cup : Cricket
  • Rothman's Trophy : Cricket
  • William's Cup : Basketball
  • European Champions Cup : Football
  • Eisenhower Cup : Golf
  • Essande Champions Cup : Hockey
  • Rene Frank Trophy : Hockey
  • Grand Prix : Table Tennis
  • Edgbaston Cup : Lawn Tennis
  • Grand Prix : Lawn Tennis
  • World Cup : Weight-lifting
  • Agarwal Cup : Badminton
  • Agha Khan Cup : Hockey
  • All-India Women's Guru Nanak Championship : Hockey
  • Bandodkar Trophy : Football
  • Bangalore Blues Challenge Cup : Basketball
  • Barna-Bellack Cup : Table Tennis
  • Beighton Cup : Hockey
  • Bombay Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Burdwan Trophy : Weight-lifting
  • Charminar Trophy : Athletics
  • Chadha Cup : Badminton
  • C. K. Naydu Trophy : Cricket
  • Chakoia Gold Trophy : Football
  • Divan Cup : Badminton
  • Deodhar Trophy : Cricket
  • Duleep Trophy : Cricket
  • D. C. M. Cup : Football
  • Durand Cup : Football
  • Dhyan Chand Trophy : Hockey
  • Dr. B. C. Roy Trophy : Football(Junior)
  • Ezra Cup : Polo
  • F. A. Cup : Football
  • G. D. Birla Trophy : Cricket
  • Ghulam Ahmed Trophy : Cricket
  • Gurmeet Trophy : Hockey
  • Gura Nanak Cup : Hockey
  • Gyanuati Devi Trophy : Hockey
  • Holkar Trophy : Bridge
  • lrani Trophy : Cricket
  • I. F. A. Shield : Football
  • lndira Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Jawaharlal Challenge : Air Racing
  • Jaswant Singh Trophy : Best Services Sportsman
  • Kuppuswamy Naidu Trophy : Hockey
  • Lady Rattan Tata Trophy : Hockey
  • MCC Trophy : Hockey
  • Moinuddaula Gold Cup : Cricket
  • Murugappa Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Modi Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Narang Cup : Badminton
  • Nehru Trophy : Hockey
  • Nixan Gold Cup : Football
  • Obaid Ullah Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Prithi Singh Cup : Polo
  • Rani Jhansi Trophy : Cricket
  • Ranjit Trophy : Cricket
  • Rangaswami Cup : Hockey
  • Ranjit Singh Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Rajendra Prasad Cup : Tennis
  • Ramanujan Trophy : Table Tennis
  • Rene Frank Trophy : Hockey
  • Radha Mohan Cup : Polo
  • Raghbir Singh Memorial : Football
  • Rohinton Baria Trophy : Cricket
  • Rovers Cup : Football
  • Sanjay Gold Cup : Football
  • Santosh Trophy : Football
  • Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee : Football
  • Subroto Cup : Football
  • Scindia Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Sahni Trophy : Hockey
  • Sheesh Mahal Trophy : Cricket
  • Todd Memorial Trophy : Football
  • Tommy Eman Gold Cup : Hockey
  • Vittal Trophy : Football
  • Vizzy Trophy : Cricket
  • Vijay Merchant Trophy : Cricket
  • Wellington Trophy : Rowing
  • Wills Trophy : Cricket
More information on Cups and Trophies

Air Racing 
Jawaharlal Challenge Trophy,
King's Cup,
chneider Cup etc

Federation Cup

Charminar Trophy,
World Cup,
Federation Cup etc

Aggarwal Cup, Amrit Diwan Cup, Asia Cup, Australasia Cup, Chaddha Cup, European Cup, Harilela Cup, Ibrahim Rahimatollah Challenger Cup, Konica Cup, Narang Cup, SR Ruia Cup, Sophia Cup, Kitiakara Cup, Thomas Cup, Tunku Abdulrahman Cup, Uber Cup, World Cup, Yonex Cup etc 

Basalat Jha Trophy, BC Gupta Trophy, Federation Cup, SM Arjuna Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, William Jones Cup, Bangalore Blues Challenge Cup, Nehru Cup, Federation Cup etc.

Boat Rowing 
American Cup ( Hachtracing ),
Wellington Trophy (India)

Aspy Adjahia Trophy,
Federation Cup,
Val Baker Trophy etc.

Basalat Jha Trophy,
Holkar Trophy,
Ruia Gold Cup,
Singhania Trophy, etc 

Naidu Trophy,
Khaitan Trophy,
Limca Trophy,
Lin Arec City Trophy,
World Cup, etc

Anthony D' Mellow Trophy, Ashes, Asia Cup, Benson and Hedges Cup, Bose Trophy, Champions Trophy, Charminar Challenger Cup, CK Naidu Trophy, Cooch - Behar Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar - Border Trophy, GD Birla Trophy, Gillette Cup, Ghulam Ahmand Trophy, Hakumat Rai Trophy, ICC World Cup, Irani Trophy, Interface Cup, Jawaharlal Nehru Cup, Lomboard World Challenge Cup, Mc Dowells Challenge Cup, Merchant Cup, Moin-ud-Dowla Cup, Nat West Trophy, Prudential Cup (World Cup), Rani Jhansi Trophy, Ranji Trophy, Rohinton Baria Trophy, Rothmans Cup, Sahara Cup, Sharjah Cup, Sheesh Mahal Trophy, Sheffield Shield, Singer Cup, Sir Frank Worrel Trophy, Texaco Cup, Titan Cup, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Vijay Merchant Trophy, Vizzy Trophy, Wisden Trophy, Wills Trophy, World Series Cup. 

Asian Woman's Cup, Bandodkar Trophy,  Bicentennial Gold Cup,
Beghum Hazarat Mahal Cup, BILT Cup, Bordoloi Trophy, Colombo Cup, Confederation Cup, DCM Trophy, Durand Cup, Rovers Cup, BC Rai Trophy (National Championship), FIFA World Cup, Jules Rimet Trophy, Kalinga Cup, Santosh Trophy (National Championship), IFA Shield, Scissor Cup, Subroto Mukherjee Cup, Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, Vittal Trophy, Indira Gandhi Trophy, Rajiv Gandhi Trophy, Airlines Cup, Asia Cup, Nehru Gold Cup,etc. 

Canada Cup, Eisenhower Trophy, Muthiah Gold Cup, Nomura Trophy, President's Trophy, Prince of Wales Cup, Ryder Cup, Solheim Cup, Topolino Trophy, Walker Cup, World Cup etc

Aga Khan Cup, All-India Women’s Guru, Bombay Gold Cup, Beighton Cup, Begam Rasul Trophy (women's), Maharaja Ranjit Singh Gold Cup, Lady Ratan Tata Trophy (women's), Gurunanak Championship (women's), Dhyanchand Trophy, Nehru Trophy, Sindhia Gold Cup, Murugappa Gold Cup, Wellington Cup, Indira Gold Cup, Kuppuswamy Naidu Trophy, Lady Rattan Tata Trophy, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, etc

Horse Racing 
Beresford Cup, Blue Raiband Cup, Derby, Grand National Cup etc.

Federation Cup

Kho- Kho
Federation Cup

Ezra Cup, Gold Cup, King's Cup, Prithi Cup, Schneider Cup etc.

Webb Ellis Trophy

Shooting North Wales Cup, Welsh Grand Pix etc

Table Tennis
Berna Bellack Cup (men), Corbillion Cup (women), Jai Laxmi Cup (women), Rajkumari Challenge Cup (women junior), Ramanuja Trophy (men junior), Travancore Cup (women), Swathling Cup (men), etc

Asia Oceanic, Davis Cup, Wightman Cup,  Edgbaston Cup, Grand Prix, Wimbledon Trophy, etc..

Centennial Cup, Federation Cup, Indira Pradhan Trophy, Shivanthi Gold Cup, etc 

America Cup, etc


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