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Showing posts with label UPSC - Civil Services Preparation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label UPSC - Civil Services Preparation. Show all posts

Is Coaching necessary ?



Due to the complex exam procedure, the coaching assumes a crucial role. Unfortunately, it is a costly affair.

But the coaching has the following advantages:

• Helps in understanding the requirements of the exam quickly, so that the preparation is focused.

• Reduces the efforts in preparation, as subject experts teach the topics in exam orientation. Anyhow, the candidate has to prepare for at least one new optional.

• Helps in getting many contacts with co-aspirants, which is useful for exam related information. Never prepare for the exam in complete isolation. In any complex situation, information plays the key role.

Please take into account the following points while joining any institute:

• Do not merely go by the advertisements, nor the claims made in magazines or the interviews supposedly given by the toppers.

• Meet the successful candidates and the seniors who have taken coaching from that institute.

• Do not go by the advise of only one person. It is better to contact as many as possible and get a general opinion.

• Meet the teacher personally, ask for their programme details, results, etc, and assess yourself if it is worth joining there.


If you are working somewhere or economically under privileged

If you are working somewhere or economically under privileged, and therefore, cannot go for coaching, please do not get discouraged. There are many people who cleared the exam without coaching. 

You can device ways of getting the required information about the exam. But you should always be aware that you would have to work harder than others to clear the exam. 

So be prepared for that and believe that hard work will always be paid back in the end.



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Choosing the Optional Subjects



This is the first and most important stage of your journey and should be accomplished most carefully as coming things hinge on it and a wrong decision may prove to be disastrous. Careful analysis of syllabus, previous years' papers, your caliber, requirement of subject (Visionary, Numerical, Theoretical), comfort level with the subject and past trends should be done. 

Advice from seniors and fellow candidates should also be sought. To avoid dithering in choice at later stage, initial deep thinking and consultations are a must. Having decided the subject, it is advisable to stick to your choice even if the perception of others about it is not favourable.

Major criteria, which should guide you in choosing optionals, are:

1. Interest in the subject. This is quite important for sustaining the momentum in studies and completing the huge syllabus.

2. Availability of guidance – in the form of seniors who cleared with the optional, coaching, material, etc.

3. Performance of the optional in the last few years.

4. Time gap between the two optionals. Some people try to choose the optionals combination so that there is some time gap between them.

Please note that there is no subject that can be said to be scoring. UPSC is
maintaining utmost balance between the subjects. It has brought all the optional subjects onto the same platform as far as scoring is concerned.

Some of the optionals which a majority take are: Anthropology, Geography, History, Political Science and International Relations, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology and Literature.

The main advantages with these optionals are:

1. Availability of guidance, which reduces the efforts to a large extent


2. The knowledge also helps in GS, Essay and interview.


3. They are also relevant for an administrative career.

If a person is from professional education background (i.e. Engineering /Medicine), which optionals should he choose? This is a basic question for many. There is a tendency to opt for the graduating subject. 


Lets understand the problems associated with these subjects.

• Previously, science and Engineering Optionals used to do very well. In top 20, there used to be 15-16 from IIT and engineering background. But after 2000, UPSC has modified the syllabus. It became a very huge syllabus and even the exam questions are made tough. That’s the reason why, very few are writing the exam from IITs now. Many engineers are taking arts optionals instead of sciences. Just observe the background of the toppers and their optionals.

• There will be no guidance available for engineering/medical/science subjects. So, lots of time will have to be spent in understanding the requirements of the exam. Then, searching for the material. It becomes a trial and error process. All the energies will be spent on this, while you get exhausted when really studying. At the same time, you will also have to complete the huge syllabus of another optional and GS.

• Because of the above problem, it will take more time and more attempts. While, your friends in other fields go far ahead. So, both peer and social pressure starts. The exam is anyhow psychologically demanding, if other pressures add to it, then it becomes unbearable. Finally, your goal of cracking the exam becomes impossible.

• You will have to do every thing on your own. Initially it might be fine. But the exam is of long duration. It becomes difficult to sustain the momentum on your own. A person might be University topper, but we have to understand the difference between an academic exam and a competitive exam. So it is very important to be careful, while choosing optionals, even though you might feel you are really good in a particular subject. Still, if you are confident about your subject, then do take that optional. 

There are some people who cleared with optionals that others don’t take generally. 

But take into consideration the following points

• Whether you have a senior who has cleared with this optional and who can guide you well

• Whether you have close association with professors who have good understanding about this exam.

• Are you clear about the requirements of the exam? Study the previous papers thoroughly and assess yourself

• Be clear about the books to follow. Don’t do trial and error process. Do a focused exam oriented preparation.

• Do not neglect other optional and GS. Give equal importance.

• Form a group of aspirants with same optional. If you prepare in isolation, then there will be no flow of information.

Do not be in a hurry to decide about the optional. Be very cautious and consult the right people about the information. Analyse carefully all the pros and cons, and then take a decision purely based on your assessment.


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Making of Notes for Civils / Competitive Exams ?


Friends!! This topic helps you how to make notes for Civils/ Competitive Exams.

Since the competition is relative, your answers in the examination should not only be correct but also different with a touch of creativity. The creativity and innovation is not something that you will get in the textbooks. They have to be developed on your own. It requires lot of thinking and observation. 

By innovation in answers what is meant is –
• Catchy introduction
• Diagrams
• Graphs
• Flow charts
• Maps
• Case studies
• Contemporary touch and applicability
• Catchy conclusion.

Basics with clarity will come when there is lot of questioning while studying. The topic has to be studied in a logical manner. Suppose you are studying a topic on Inflation. 


Think logically as a layman, then you should get the following sequence of questions
• What is inflation

• Why should there be inflation, i.e., causes

• So what if there is inflation, i.e., impact

• If impact is negative, then naturally we should be doing something to reduce it, so what steps were taken and what happened

• If still inflation is there, then what’s wrong with the steps taken

• How to control inflation, any suggestions by experts and recent developments.

You can add innovations like a simple graph showing how the inflation has been in recent times and also a flow diagram about the impact of inflation.

In this manner, the basics in the topic can be covered with clarity. And the topic should be remembered in this logical structured way for the exam. It should be understood that once you have done the topic in this comprehensive method through logical questioning, the preparation is over for that topic. 

You need not go through any journals or hi-funda textbooks for becoming an expert in the topic. This much of basics with clarity are sufficient for the exam. And, this is what humanly possible in view of the huge syllabus.

The following points should be kept in mind while doing preparation:

• The focus should be on gaining basic clarity in each topic, which will come only through lot of logical questioning

• More time should be spent on thinking about the topic and making innovations, rather than on reading too many study material.

• The previous papers should be thoroughly analyzed to understand the expectations of the examiner.

• The preparation should be focused and all the hard work should be channelised in the right direction.


It is always better to prepare notes for every topic in the syllabus, especially for the topics, which you prepare from various sources. This aspect is the most crucial stage in the preparation. Finally what you write in the exam only matters. You write only what you remember. You remember only that which you revise before the exam. 

Note that you will have to revise as many as 1000 topics including all the sub-parts in GS and optionals. Therefore your efficiency in revision matters a lot for your performance in the exam. The revision efficiency depends on the notes that you prepare. So you should always be aware of this practical aspect while you prepare notes for the exam.

The notes should not be prepared as if writing a thesis paper. For any topic, you should have a brief synopsis. Do not even use sentences while writing notes. Note down the key terms and the logical structure with side headings. Also note down the figures and diagrams in a simple manner, which can be reproduced in the exam within time limit.

For most topics, one or two pages of notes are sufficient. Write them down in a logical framework using different inks, so that your efficiency in revision increases. Finally, when revising just before the exam, you cannot spend more than 5-10 minutes for each topic. So keep that in mind always.

Do not spend days together on any topic. The exam only requires a basic clarity which can be obtained by studying one or two standard books and spending more time on thinking. Usually, 3-4 hrs sufficient for each topic. Just be cautious if you are spending more time on any topic inspite of availability of good material.


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How to start the preparation ?



Hi Friends! This post helps you "how to start the Civils/Competitive Exam Preparation". Before anyone starts playing a game, he would like to know the rules of the game and that is sportsmanship. Similarly in any competitive exam, understanding the nature of the exam is very critical. 

The preparation will be more focused when you know exactly what the Examination expects rather demands from you. Remember at every stage of your preparation that this examination is relative. You only need to be better than the other aspirants to get a final place in the merit list.

The nature of the exam can be analysed through the following ways:

• A thorough perusal of Notification and carefully understanding the requirements from it.

• A thorough analysis of the previous year’s papers and the recent trends.

• Discussing elaborately with teachers, successful candidates and seniors.

A fresh aspirant comes with the idea that he has to do some hi-funda preparation and be like a scholar in the subjects. He starts his preparation on a high note and works hard in the beginning. For each topic he tries to do maximum and best preparation. In the process, he reads all the textbooks and the coaching material available in the market. Some spend 2-3 days on each topic and prepare 10-15 pages of notes. Gradually, he feels exhausted and the momentum slows down. 

Due to this approach, he is not able to complete the syllabus. So, he goes for a selective study as the exam nears. Now the pressure becomes unbearable, as on one hand he has not completed the syllabus and on the other hand he prepared so much notes for each topic that revision becomes impossible within a short time. 

People have a funny idea that exams can be cleared only in multiple attempts. So, the aspirant starts succumbing to pressure and convinces himself that it is only his first attempt and, therefore he can prepare better next time.

Though the exam demands hard work from the aspirant, it should be “intelligent hard work” and not just hard work. This exam is all about the basics with lot of clarity. The exam can be written well when the preparation is simple and the aspirant is very strong in basics with clarity.



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General Do’s and Don’ts for the personality test


  • The board members are usually very senior and learned people, so give utmost respect to the board.
  • Speak honestly, truthfully and modestly.
  • Never make an attempt to present a made-up appearance or politically correct answers.
  • If you are taking an extreme view, you should also be able to justify the same.
  • Take tea or coffee, if any member offers the same to you. This will show you are relaxed and it will also help in lightening and relaxing further proceedings and give them an informal touch.
  • Don’t criticize any government policies or even individuals.
  • Take a good night’s sleep. A good, sound sleep will keep you refreshed, cheerful and relaxed. Otherwise you will have a fuzzy head and you will have a confused personality. You will neither be able to grasp questions correctly, nor be able to think clearly.
  • At times, the Board members might pile pressure upon you. Do not panic – it is a strategy aimed at gauging the point till which you can maintain your cool under pressure and can think originally even in tense situations.
  • Form your views on the subjects in a logical and rational manner supported by data whenever necessary.
  • To be in touch with the latest happenings/events – nationally and internationally, candidates should read magazines and newspapers, watch current affairs-based television programmes. Refer to our site for latest current affairs.
  • Assume that all questions are asked with a good reason and answer them accordingly.
  • Do not entertain any rumors regarding the integrity of the board. The interviews are of the top class and the marks awarded are also proportional to what the candidate deserves. The rumors are, mainly spread by people who do not clear the exam. 
  • Instead of criticizing others, it is better to introspect and make efforts to develop one’s personality. So, go to the interview with utmost respect for the board and confidence in their integrity. Put your best performance on that day.
  • Avoid conversational cliches, like: 'as you know', 'that's correct', 'of course', 'indeed', 'obviously', etc.
  • Avoid technical jargon. However, if a member continues to probe you in any technical field, you can use technical expressions.
  • Maintain a cheerful disposition. Now and then you can appear serious; but most of the time keep smiling or look cheerful and composed. 
  • One caution here: if the board laughs, you should only smile. It is only when you maintain some amount of distance that the board begins to wonder about the depth of your personality.
  • Do not give long introductions. Come straight to the heart of the matter.
  • Show human concern whenever possible in your answers.
  • You should be logically consistent and analyse things rationally while talking.
  • You are supposed to defend what you say, but with due respect to the views of the board. 
  • Stop trying to defend an answer if it becomes difficult to do so logically and fairly.
  • Do not make hasty or sweeping generalizations.


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During Interview


  • In a personality test, what is of importance is how you say what you say. It is the style of presentation that matters.

  • Your personality is, on an average, assessed in 25-30 minutes; it is your responsibility to bring out your very best in front of the board.

  • Intelligent listening is the mantra, and for this maintaining eye contact is very important. You should not glare but all the same appear attentive and do not glance at other members, it can be very distracting for the interviewer. However if some other member asks you anything, look at that member and answer and turn back to the first - this is what we do in normal attentive listening.

  • Try not to jump into an answer before the complete question has been posed, as you will end up wasting time on answering a question that you were not actually asked. If you are not sure of what was asked, you can always politely seek a clarification.

  • Do not try to answer the question as soon as it is posed. Think over the question, take your time and organize the broad outline of the answer before airing it. Pause a while before answering, even if you know the answer.

  • Do not speak rapidly. Speak slowly and clearly so that the Board members grasp what you are saying and do not have to interrupt you or ask you to repeat your views.

  • Do not fidget or throw your hands around, or shake your head. Less amount of movement does not mean you should sit unnaturally stiff. Your posture should be attentive and relaxed at the same time. Do not crouch/bend forward or place your hands on the table.

  • At times, you will be given situations wherein you will be required to take a decision. In such situations, the board is testing your ability to comprehend issues and use reason and good judgment logically, precisely and arrive at a balanced decision.

  • Your replies should be crisp and to the point. Do not beat around the bush.

  • Cut your answer short to the required patience shown by the member talking to you. They usually like to talk more, so listen carefully and think for a few seconds before you start answering the question. This will show that you are organising your thoughts in mind before starting to speak.

  • Leave some room for difference in opinion. Do take a stand, but do not look adamant or unwilling to appreciate the board's opinion.

  • Use couple of words from the question while answering any question. It shows you have listened to the question carefully. But at the same time limit the use the technical jargon.

  • Do not start evaluating your performance while still in the interview. Even if you have committed mistakes in the beginning, do not think that you have already lost the game. They are looking for warm, sensitive respectful and attentive youngsters. They know you are good or you would not have come so far.

  • Talk humbly about your achievements and hobbies. You may have mentioned some hobbies in the form without serious background in them, but before the interview it would be useful to pick up some basic info on the hobby.

  • Say less to convey more. Argue logically and generalize correctly.

  • Remember, while answering any question, what is easy to see is easy to miss. We often tend to miss the obvious and go for some non-crucial aspect of the subject.

  • Questions posed before a candidate by the interviewing board are very well framed and answers to them should be made taking into consideration all possible views and a balanced approach is expected from a candidate.

  • Remember, non-awareness of something should be admitted with politeness. It is okay to not know something! It is better to say 'No' than to bluff around.

  • Those interviewing are highly experienced persons and know much better than us.

  • If the question put is not clear to you, politely ask for more information. It is not the factual knowledge but your views, which will be tested in the interview.

  • Always observe interview etiquette and be honest, polite, convincing a modest. Arrogance, rigidity, flicking round the issue should be avoided.

  • Don't be argumentative. Be consistent in your views, i.e. just don't change your views because of the fact that the Board is differing with you. Remember that they are only testing you and often even try to provoke you. Give balanced answers and avoid taking extremes.

  • The most important thing to know about the Interview is that it is not a question-answer session and what they are looking out for is different aspects of one's personality. As far as possible, the answer given should reveal a particular aspect of one's personality and attempts should not be made to present a make-up appearance or politically correct answers. There is no harm in taking extreme views if one is able to justify them.

  • Maintain a gentle smile off and on during the Personality Test without overdoing it. It displays a sense of ease and confidence. Wherever possible use your sense of humor judiciously.

  • Get up to leave only when the chairperson asks you to, not because you think everyone has asked a question. Similarly, even if someone has not asked a question and the chairperson asks you to leave then please leave. Some members do not ask questions at all, due to various reasons like limited time.

  • Before leaving politely thank the chairperson and nod at the others politely. Avoid saying "Have a good day sir/madam". A "Thank you Sir/Madam" is enough.


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Entry to Interview Room



  • Arrive 20-30 minutes early. This will give you enough time to relax.

  • Keep a file / folder to keep your certificates and documents in an organized manner. They are verified before you enter the interview room. (You don’t have to carry file / folder inside board room)

  • While waiting for your turn in the waiting area, read a newspaper or a magazine and try to remain focused without thinking too much of what will happen in the interview. Do not try to pre-suppose situations in the Personality Test.

  • Take a final, deep breath before entering the boardroom.

  • Do not forget to knock at the door before entering, as it indicates basic courtesy.

  • On entering the room, greet all the members cordially and do not sit down on the seat without being asked to.

  • If there is a lady member in the interview board, greet her first.

  • Be conscious of your body language when you are seated.

  • Men should keep the feet flat on the floor during the interview, knees at waist level, and hands on your thighs and place your elbows on the armchair. Avoid locking hands.

  • Women, cross your ankles or legs, but keep the bottom leg straight down and do not swing it over the top leg and keep your elbows positioned on the arms of the chair.

  • When the Board members thank you at the end of the Personality test, do not forget to thank the members one last time and keep your body posture straight at the time of leaving the room.

  • Be cool. Be yourself during the Interview.

  • Your aim should be to make the board members feel comfortable in your presence.

  • Don’t expect any expression on the faces of board members, even if your answer is very good.


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Dressing Up for Interview


  • Dress sense is of crucial importance. The choice of dress should be according to the weather conditions. Try not to wear newly stitched clothes, as they might make you uneasy.
 
  • Wear comfortable clothes. Men need to wear light coloured shirt and a dark trouser with a tie. Women appear best in a saree or salwar kameez.

  • Pay attention to the details, ironed dress, polished shoes, hair accessories, trimmed nails etc. Polish your footwear meticulously. Use convenient footwear like black or brown leather shoes.

  • Women candidates should take care to avoid the hair falling over the face as it could annoy both – you and the interviewer.

  • Do not wear anything that connects you with a religious or political group.

  • Do not use heavy perfume/deodorants.

  • In case you have a running nose or have caught a cold, carry a handkerchief, or sufficient stock of tissue paper. Tissue paper is preferable.

  • Some candidates take medicine to relax on the previous night of the interview; this should be avoided as the effect of medicine may decrease your alertness during the interview.

  • What and how you eat is also important. Have a light meal on the day of the Personality Test. Do not go for the interview on an empty stomach. However, also avoid over-eating, or having a heavy meal.

  • First impression is often the best impression. So create a positive, good impression within the first few minutes of the interview.


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What type of questions does the Interview Board asks?


Relating to your name: Any famous personality who has a similar or same name or surname.

Your career choice: Why you want to opt for the civil services.

Your Hobbies: Why you pursue such a hobby or questions related to your hobby. So research well on your hobby.

Hot topics of recent days like  Growing airlines, Terror attacks in India, India US Nuclear deal, Indian Cricket,  etc(These are just examples). 

Keep reading and watching the news. If the recent headlines have something to do with your subject then specially revise those portions. For example if you are a veterinary doctor, Bird flu may go on to other animal diseases that can infect men.
If you are an MBBS, then you might be asked about human to human spread of epidemics or any other epidemics and precautions etc. If you are from an economy background, the same topic will veer towards the economic implications of the Bird flu.
How you are going to use your specific knowledge (like if you are a doctor, lawyer, engineer etc) in the services.

• Situational questions/ Hypothetical questions: Like If you were the collector/SP of so and so, what would you do after the Communal riots/Bomb Blast?

Choice of services: The order of your choice of services can raise questions too.

About your institution and related: If you have studies at IIM you may be asked about the rising salaries, if from IGNOU then even about Indira Gandhi and so on.

Other areas to be focused are:
  • why optionals
  • background of the parents
  • places where you stayed
  • academic background and related aspects
  • optional subjects
  • graduating subject
  • positions if held 
  • job experience if any
  • hobbies
  • sports

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How to Prepare?


Start full-scale preparation for the interview, immediately after the mains exam.

Be very careful while filling the mains application form. This form is the basis on which the whole interview depends. So, consult the seniors and fill the information carefully. Through this form, you can direct the board into your strong areas. The interview will go on expected lines and you can give well prepared answers. Do keep a photocopy of the form.

The preparation should be at two levels - the subject matter preparation and the way you present yourself.

One should prepare for the interview with a group of 3-4 people as the preparation for Interview cannot be done in isolation. Personality is a life-time asset and expecting miraculous changes in personality in a span of a few days or weeks is not possible. Yet, efforts can be made to overcome major deficiency and polishing of views and opinions.

Use a handy cam or a mirror to see how you speak, the facial expressions, mannerisms etc.

Keep visualizing the interview scenario and modify yourself accordingly. In interview- you are assessed right from the moment you enter.


So the following aspects are important—
  • the way you walk; 
  • the way you sit down; 
  • the way you dress up; 
  • the enthusiasm and cheerfulness in your face; 
  • the way you talk; 
  • your mannerisms; 
  • facial expressions; 
  • politeness; 
  • behavior; 
  • the way you tackle the questions; 
  • the confidence you display; 
  • the way you take leave and walk out of the room; etc. 
So in all these dimensions you should keep contemplating and put your best performance on that day.

The best way of preparation is to just sit and do brain storming intensively. Think what type of questions can be asked and how you can give a simple and logical answer. This will not come from reading many books. It requires lot of introspection.

Show a positive body language. You believe that you are suitable for the job. Convey to them the message that you are the person they are looking for.

Read various original interviews given in the magazines to understand what the UPSC expects from you.


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Qualities judged in Interview Test


The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his/her career. 

Candidate will be asked questions on matters of general interest. 

The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. 

The test is intended to judge the mental caliber of a candidate. In broad terms this is really an assessment of not only his intellectual qualities but also social traits and his interest in current affairs. 

Some of the qualities to be judged are 
  • mental alertness, 
  • critical powers of assimilation, 
  • clear and logical exposition, 
  • balance of judgement, 
  • variety and depth of interest, 
  • ability for social cohesion and leadership, 
  • intellectual and moral integrity.

The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural and purposive conversation, which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.

The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialised or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. 

Candidates are expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own state or country as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well educated youth.



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What is looked for in the Personality Test (or) Interview ?



The personality is some thing that cannot be developed in few days. It is a continuous process since your childhood. But, you can modify it suitably to get good marks in the interview.

Some traits, which can be summarized below:

1. Suitability to a public career

2. Mental Caliber

3. Not only intellectual traits but also social traits

4. Interest in current affairs

5. Mental alertness

6. Critical powers of assimilation

7. Clear and logical exposition

8. Balance of judgment

9. Variety and depth of interest

10. Ability for social cohesion and leadership

11. Intellectual and moral integrity


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Telugu Literature


Strategy

Telugu Literature is a popular optional for all the aspirants who are well-versed in this language. That does not mean that one has to be a literature graduate (B.A or M.A in Telugu). The success rate of many engineering graduates, who have liking for the subject, indicates that the subject is easy, provided one has the aptitude for the subject. 

Paper – I 
This is the easiest paper of Telugu Literature and very easy to read and doesn’t require any coaching. You can pick up the books suggested and start reading even before you join any coaching. In section – A, if one is comfortable with telugu grammar, the subject becomes very easy. But on the negative side, you need to remember lots of names of authors and books in Section – B. As the subject is easy, care should be taken in presentation and art of writing good answers with subheading and nice examples. 
Paper – 1 (Sec A):  
1, 4 – 8 sections of the syllabus can be chosen to prepare, ignoring others in choice.

Suggested Reading:
Nagaraju Sir’s notes (available in the Srinivasa Xerox Center near Ashok nagar X roads, Hyderabad)
Andhra Bhasha Charithra (by Badriraju Krishnamurty) (only if you have time to read)
Vakyam (by Chekuri Ramarao) (only if you have time to read)
Paper – 1 (Sec B): 
1 – 4 (ancient) sections of the syllabus, 
5 – 8 (medieval) sections, 
9 – 12 (modern) sections, Janapada sahityam. 
You can either pick ancient (1 – 4) or medieval (5 – 8) sections,and readingModern (9 – 12) and Janapada sahityam compulsorily.
Suggested Reading:
Nagaraju Sir’s notes (available in the Srinivasa Xerox Center near Ashok
nagar X roads, Hyderabad)
Andhra Sahitya Charitra (by Nagayya) (very big book. Read only if you
have time).
Paper – 2 
This is a difficult paper compared to Paper – I, but also very scoring. For this paper, I feel coaching is necessary, especially for the ones who don’t understand Kavya style of writing. Also, this paper includes writing Vyakhyanas for different padyalu both ancient and modern.
Paper – 2 (Sec A): 
You can read (Dushyanta Charitra) Nannayya, (Sri Krishna Rayabaram) Tikkana, (Gunanidhi katha) Srinathudu, (Sugatri Saleenula Katha) Pingali Soorana. You can ignore Molla Ramayanam and last notes. 

Suggested Reading:
Syllabus and text notes of all the chapters (from Navodaya Book House,
Koti or Sree Book Square, Kachiguda X Road).
Nagaraju Sir’s notes
Akella Raghavendra book on Telugu Literature Paper – II.
They are commentaries available on each syllabus chapter in Navodaya Book House. But read this, after you get sufficient time and after completion of syllabus.
Paper - 2 (Sec B): 
There are two ways to read this section. Read the poetry syllabus of 5 chapters for both Vyakhyanas and Long Answers. Or read poetry syllabus for Vyakhyanas and read prose sections of Gurajada kathalu, Alpajeevi and NGO for Long answers. The choice will be yours. Its better to read Sri Sri - Maha Prastanam
and Jashuva - Gabbilam for both Vyakhyanas and Long answers.

Suggested Reading:
Syllabus and text notes of all the chapters (from Navodaya Book House, Koti or Sree Book Square, Kachiguda X Road).
Nagaraju Sir’s notes
Akella Raghavendra book on Telugu Literature Paper – II.
They are commentaries available on each syllabus chapter in Navodaya Book House. But read this, after you get sufficient time and after completion of syllabus.

Important Points to Note

Long Answers:

• First look at the previous question papers and write down all the questions per topic one after other, so that you can get an idea of questions asked.

• All the topics can be related to - Kala Soundarya Drukpatham, Charithraka Samajaka Drukpatham, Manastatatva Drukpatham, Tatvika Drukpatham, Vyaktitvam (character - sketch), Relevance and importance of the topic in literature and so on.

• So, prepare points on each topic rather than answers for each topic. These points you can use to write answers depending on the question asked.

• Prepare nice introductions and nice endings for each general topic.

• Read the text number of times. especially poetry so that you get command of the subject and also to write quotes in the exam.

• Quotations will surely enhance your answers.

Vyakhyanas: 
• All the topics can be related to - Kala Soundarya Drukpatham, Charithraka Samajaka Drukpatham, Manastatatva Drukpatham, Tatvika Drukpatham

• You have to develop a base in all the above topics, so that you can write easily for any poem asked.

• Give introduction, Sandarbam, bhavam and start the vyakhyanam and then ending.

• For kala soundarya Drukpatham, one has to know all about the Rasam, Dhvani, Vakrokti etc.

• Develop important points for all the Vrutha poems (4 lined poems) and then write important points for all the other poems if you have time.

• Do write at least 5 vyakhyanas for all the 4 drukpathams before the exam so that you are sufficiently confident.


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Zoology


Strategy

Paper I Section A 
Non-chordata and chordata: 
• Classification should be done thoroughly as it's given in Barnes' textbook
• Pay attention to general essays rather than type studies
• Always correlate things from evolutionary viewpoint -Draw as many diagrams
and flow charts as possible
• Students should cover all theories.
• In chordate description, compare the phyla phylogenetically and anatomically. Comparative anatomy diagrams should be coloured.

Paper I Section B 
The most scoring parts are Economic Zoology, Bio Stats and Bio Instrumentation. Students need to focus on topics related to developments in India in Economic Zoology.

Paper II Section A 
To prepare Cell Biology and Genetics, students need to follow the same advice as provided for these two topics in Botany. However, you need to correlate cellular processes with human physiology and human disease conditions. In Genetics, student should also mention the possible human welfare applications. Peripheral questions are generally not asked.

Paper II Section B
Biochemistry and Physiology. Practical Bio-chemical pathway with structural formula of molecules are important.

Prepare from medical bio-chemistry and physiology books. Represent most information through flow charts. Always draw relevant anatomical diagrams. Development Biology If physiology and biochemistry are prepared thoroughly, then this part can be prepared only for short notes. Colored drawings are a must. Students need to practice them properly.


Reference Books


• Cell and Molecular Biology - De Robertis, C.B. Powar

• Genetics - P.K. Gupta, Gardner, Ahluwalia, Vir Bala Rastogi

• Invertebrates - R.L. Kotpal, Nigam, Jordan

• Vertebrates - R.L. Kotpal, Nigam, Jordan and Varma

• Comparative anatomy of vertebrate zoology - Kent

• Animal physiology - H.R. Singh, Vander

• Biochemistry - Harper, Leninger, Stryer, Rao

• Embryology - Balinsky, A.K. Berry, Vir Bala Rastogi

• Organic evolution - Veer Bala Rastogi

• Ecology - P.D. Sharma, Odum, Vir Bala Rastogi and M.S. Jayaraj, Kotpal and Bali

• Economic Zoology - Shukla and Upadhaya, Kotpal Series, Kotpal- Khetrapal -
Agarwal

• Ethology - Reena Mathur, Magazines like Science Reporter, Nature etc.

• General Zoology - Storer and Usurger

• Physiology - H.R. Singh

• Evolution - Vir Bala Rastogi

• A Dictionary of Entomology - Leftwich

It’s better to keep answers diagrammatic and less verbose. Students should also not hesitate in drawing colour diagrams.


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Urdu Literature


Reference Books

Paper I 
• Urdu ki Lisani Tashkil - Mirza Khalil Ahmad Beg [Educational Book House, Aligarh]
• Mokqadwa; Tarikh-e-Zuban-e-Urdu - Prof. Maswood Husain Khan [Educational Book House, Aligarh]
• Ansaf-e-SuKhan aur Sher Haiyyaten - Shamian Ahmed

Paper II 
• Urdu Shairi ka Tauqidi Mutala - Suenbul Nigar [Educational Book House, Aligarh]
• Urdu Nasr ka Tauqidi Mutala - Suenbul Nigar [Educational Book House, Aligarh]
• Urdu Adab Ki Tarikh - Noorul Hasan Naqvi [Educational Book House, Aligarh]


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Statistics



Reference Books

• Introductory Probability and Statistical Applications - Paul Meyer

• An Introduction to Probability Theory & Mathematical Statistics -V K Rohtagi

• Fundamentals of Statistics (2 Vol.)- A M Goon, M K Gupta and B Dass Gupta

• An Outline of Statistical Theory (2 Vol.) -A M Goon, M K Gupta and B .Dass Gupta

• Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics-A C Gupta and V K Kapoor

• Fundamentals of Applied Statistics-S C Gupta and V K Kapoor

• Sampling Techniques-William G. Cochran

• Sampling Theory of Surveys with applications - B. V Sukhatme & B V Sukhatme.



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Sociology


Strategy

Paper I
For short questions, these are the important sections in paper I:
• Sociology - The Discipline
• Scientific Study of Social Phenomena
• Techniques of data collection and analysis
• Economic System
• Political System
• Educational System
• Science & Technology

To prepare for the long questions in paper I, students are required to thoroughly prepare Pioneering contributions to Sociology. This includes

• Karl Marx: Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation and class struggle.
• Emile Durham: Division of labour, social fact, religion and society.
• Max Weber: Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
• Talcott Parsons: Social system, pattern variables.
• Robert K Merton: Latent and manifest functions, anomie, conformity and
deviance, reference groups.

While revising Pioneering contributions to Sociology', students need to focus on areas like socio-economic and political background, views of thinkers, their analysis, contemporary perspective and evolution.

The section on `Pioneering contributions to Sociology' is the most important part of paper I. It helps to understand the theoretical inferences of paper II. So, if you are thorough with this section, it will be easier for candidates to get a gist of sections like Social Stratification, Economic System, Political System, Educational System, Social Movements and Social Change and Development.

Candidates are required to understand argumentative aspect of thinkers like Karl Marx, Emile Durham, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, Robert K Merton, with an eye to use their arguments in other sections of paper I. The theoretical inference of these thinkers need to be carried forward in paper II wherever required.

For long questions, students need to focus on topics such as Pioneering Contributions to Sociology, Marriage and Family, Social Stratification and Mobility, Political System, Social Movements and Social Change and Development. Students who can thoroughly focus on these sections are expected to answer 70% of queries in paper I. They should, however, have an overall view of the paper with focus on emerging trends like education, religion and economic developments.

Paper II 
While preparing for this paper, students should ensure that they should not confine their preparation in terms of different sections. They need to focus on interrelation between different topics. Students need to have an analytical eye with focus on continuity and change. Like, despite so many changes, why caste system is still prevalent in our country. Or, despite the break-up of the joint family system, the mentality of joint family still exists among Indians.

For short questions, the important sections are:
• Historical Moorings of the Indian Society
• Class Structure
• Marriage, Family and Kinship
• Education
• Political System
• Population Dynamics
• Social Movements
• Social Problems

For long questions, the important sections are:
• Caste System
• Class Structure
• Agrarian Social Structure
• Industry and Society
• Political Processes
• Tribal Societies
• Social Change
• Social Movements
• Women and Society

Apart from these, students need to keep an eye on sections like Caste System, Agrarian Social Structure and Tribal Societies. You can always have short or long questions from these three sections. Paper II actually works like mathematics and it is a high-scoring paper.

There are many topics in paper II, which seem to be essay-type. But in Sociology, they need to be approached through sociological perspectives. Suppose you are asked a question on poverty, this can have theoretical inferences. You need to give empirical or sociological or case studies examples to analyse the topics.

Writing Short questions: 
You need to directly start answering the question. Avoid flowery language with an eye on all perspectives while answering the question

Long questions:
Perspectives, which have been asked needs to be kept in view while answering the question. Theoretical dimension are to be substantiated with analysis.


REFERENCE BOOKS

Ram Ahuja: Society in India

Ram Ahuja: Social problems in India

IGNOU notes (especially for thinkers and topic on Indian system)

Caste its 20th Century Avatar - M.N. Srinivas

Participation as freedom - Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze

Y. Singh - Modernisation of Indian Tradition

Y. Singh - Social tradition in India

L.P. Vidhyarthi - Tribal India

Yojana (Independence day special 2001 on population)

Y. Singh - Social Change in India

Niel J. Smelser for Economy and Society

Abraham and Francis - Sociological theory

Sociology - T.B. Bottomore

Sociology - Harry M. Johnson

Sociology: An introduction and analysis - Maclver and Page

Handbook of sociology - Ogburn and Ninkoff

Social anthropology - Madan and Majumdar

Social Thought - Abraham and Morgan

Social structure - M.N. Srinivas

Dictionary of sociology - Dunean and Mitchel or Penguin


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