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World - GK


Statistics of the Earth & Sun

Surface Area : 510,100,500 Sq.Kms.

Land Surface : 148,950,800 Sq.Kms. (29.08%)

Water Surface : 361,149,700 Sq.Kms.(70.92%)

Equatorial circumference : 40,075 Kms.

Polar circumference : 40,008 Kms

Equatorial radius : 6,377 Kms.

Equatorial Diameter : 1,22,756 Kms.

Polar radius : 6,357 Kms.

Polar Diameter : 12,714 Kms.

Mean distance from the Sun : 14,95,97,900 Kms.

Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hours 48 mts, 45.51 Sec.

Period of rotation : 23 hrs. 56 mts. 4.091 Sec.

Escape Velocity from the earth : 11 Km per Sec. (minimum)

Continents :

Continent Total Area
Total landmass % Population Total Pop. % Pop. Density
per sq.kms
Asia 43,820,000 29.5% 3,879,000,000 60% 86.70
Europe 10,180,000 6.8 % 731,000,000 11% 69.7
Africa 30,370,000 20.4% 922,011,000 14% 29.30
North America 24,490,000 16.5% 528,720,588 8% 21.0
South America 17,840,000 12.0%   382,000,000 6% 20.8
Australia 9,008,500 5.9% 32,000,000 0.5% 3.6
Antarctica 13,720,000 9.2% 1,000 0.00002% 0.00007

The highest and lowest points in the Continents :

Continent Highest Point Height (mts) Lowest Point Height (mts)
Asia Mount Everest 8,848 Dead Sea -408
Europe Mount Elbrus 5,633 Caspian Sea -28
Africa Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 Lake Assal -155
North America Mount McKinley 6,198 Death Valley -86
South America Aconcagua 6,960 Laguna del Carbon -105
Australia Puncak Jaya 4,884 Lake Eyre -15
Antarctica Vinson Massif 4,892 Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540

World Oceans :

Ocean Area (sq. miles) Average Depth (ft) Deepest Depth (ft)
Pacific Ocean 64,186,000 15,215 Mariana Trench,
36,200 ft deep
Atlantic Ocean 33,420,000 12,881 Puerto Rico Trench,
28,231 ft deep
Indian Ocean 28,350,000 13,002 Java Trench, 25,344 ft deep
Southern Ocean 7,848,300  13,100 - 16,400 the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench,
23,736 ft deep
Arctic Ocean 5,106,000 3,953 Eurasia Basin, 17,881 ft deep

Last updated on: 01/10/2019


Planets of Solar System


It is the planet nearest to the earth.

Average distance to the Sun : 57.6 Million Kms.

Diameter : 4,849.6 Kms.

Period of revolution : 88 days

Period of rotation : 58 days 15 hrs 30 mts. 34 sec.

(2) VENUS:

It is also known as the Morning Star or the Evening Star. It is the brightest of all the planets.

Diameter : 12,032 Kms.

Period of revolution : 225 days

Period of rotation : 243 days 14mts.

(3) EARTH :

Equatorial diameter : 12,756 Kms.

Polar diameter : 12,714 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 149,597,900 Kms.

Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hrs, 48 mts, 45.51 sec.

Period of rotation : 23 hrs 56 mts. 4.09 sec.

(4) MARS :

Diameter : 6,755.2 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 225.6 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 687 days

Period of rotation : 24 hrs 37 mts. 22.663 sec.


This is the largest planet in the solar system.

Diameter : 141,968 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 772.8 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 11.9 years

Period of rotation : 9 hrs 50 mts. 30 sec.

(6) SATURN :

It was discovered by Galileo.

Diameter : 119,296 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 1,417.6 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 29.5 years

Period of rotation : 10 hrs 14 mts.

(7) URANUS :

Diameter : 52,096 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 2,852.8 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 84 years

Period of rotation : 16 hrs 10 mts.


Diameter : 49,000 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 4,497 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 165 years

Period of rotation : 18 hrs 26 mts.

(9) PLUTO :

Pluto is a dwarf planet. This is the coldest and smallest of all planets. It is also the most distant one.

Diameter : 3,040 Kms.

Distance from the Sun : 5,865.6 Million Kms.

Period of revolution : 248 years

Period of rotation : 6 days 9 hrs and 18 mts.

MOON : Moon is earth's satellite.

Its period of rotation and Period of Revolution are the same. i.e.29 1/2 days.

Last updated on: 01/10/2019

Solar system

Our solar system consists of the Sun, and everything bound to it by gravity — the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, dwarf planets such as Pluto, dozens of moons and millions of asteroids, comets and meteoroids.

Beyond our own solar system, there are more planets than stars in night sky. So far, we have discovered thousands of planetary systems orbiting other stars in the Milky Way, with more planets being found all the time.

Most of the hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy are thought to have planets of their own, and the Milky Way is but one of perhaps 100 billion galaxies in the universe.

Our solar system extends much farther than the eight planets that orbit the Sun. The solar system also includes the Kuiper Belt that lies past Neptune's orbit. This is a sparsely occupied ring of icy bodies, almost all smaller than the most popular Kuiper Belt Object, dwarf planet Pluto.

The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter.

The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials.

The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane.

All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.

The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere.

The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium; it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc.

The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

The statistics of the sun and the planets are given below :

Age : About 5 Billion years

Distance : 149.8 Million Kms

Diameter : 1,38,400 Kms.

Photosphere temperature : 5,770 K

Core temperature : 150,000,000 K

Absolute visual magnitude : 4.75

Rotation (as seen from the earth at the equator) : 25.38 days

Rotation (near the poles) : 33 days

The sun consists of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% of other elements.

The rays of the Sun take about 8 minutes to reach the earth.

Last updated on: 01/10/2019


Facts and Terminology ( Sports )

Cricket Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Cricket was started in England in 1300 AD.
  • It started as a game of shepherds and became popular among other classes in 18th century AD.
  • After some time a club known as "Merylebone Cricket Club(MCC)" was formed at Lords in London. 
  • Cricket became popular in Australia due to British influence there.
  • The first official cricket test match was played in the year 1877 between Australia and England in Melbourne.
  • When some other countries started played Cricket Imperial Cricket Conference was formed in 1909 which gave birth to International Cricket Conference in 1956.
  • The first One Day International cricket match was played in the year 1971 between England and Australia in Melbourne.
  • The first World Cup on one day matches was played in 1975 in London. West Indies wont the World Cup beating Australia 17 runs.
  • The apex institutions of world cricket is the 'International Cricket Council'(ICC) and its headquarters is now in Dubai from August 1, 2005. Earlier it was in Lords(England).
  • Australia won the maximum of four World Cups till date.
  • In India Cricket was introduced by British royalty. Parsee community of India was the first to take part in Cricket in 1848.
  • Later on Parsee team visited England in 1886. Matches between European and Parsee teams, called Presidency matches, were started in Poona (now Pune) and Bombay (now Mumbai) 
  • Raja Bhupindra Singh of Patiala donated the Ranji Trophy in 1934 for the national championship of Cricket. 
  • The Board of Council for Cricket in India was formed in 1927.

Some Important terminologies of Cricket:- played on, Appeal, Bye, Leg Bye, Power Play, Follow on, Dusara, Beamer, Hoober Shot, Lost Ball, Duck worthLuis, Retired Hurt, Chinaman, Batsman, Bowler, Wicket Keeper, Fielder, LBW (Leg Before Wicket), Catch, Hit Wicket, Throw, Maiden over, Four, Sixer, Wide, Swing, Stroke, Cover,Mid on, Mid off, Mid Wicket, over the wicket, round the wicket, Leg spinner, Off spinner, Over throw, Over slip, Gulley, Cover point, Long off, Long on, Third man, Short pitch, Hook, Dead ball, Run out, Popping crease, Pitch, Bouncer (or Bumper), Full toss, Yorker, Yorked, Googley, Wicket Maiden, Snick, Duck, Hat-Trick, Rubber, The Ashes, Scoring a Ton etc. 

Badminton Facts & Terminology
  • Modern Badminton was probably developed in the 17th century and obtained its name from the place 'Badminton' in Gloucestershire (England).
  • The International Badminton Federation (IBF) was established in 1934.
  • The trophy for the international matches was named Thomas Cup after the name of the first president of the IBF Sir George Thomas. Thomas Cup competition (for men) in 1948-49. Uber cup Championship (for women) started in 1956.  
  • World Badminton Championship started in 1977. 
Some important terminology in Badminton :- Badminton court, End, Trans Lines, Back gallery, Service Court, Let, Forward stroke, Backward Stroke, Toss or Lob, Clear, Smash, Net Strokes, Rally, Setting, First hand or Second hand, Side out, Base of operation, Rotation, Long service, Net Fault, Double fault, Foot fault, Service break, Match Point, Set point, High service, Cross shot, Service change, Drive, Drop shot, Duce, Advance etc.

Basketball Facts & Terminology
  • The game Basketball was invented by Dr. James Naismith of USA in 1891 at Springfield College. 
  • International Basketball Federation was set up in 1932.  
  • Basketball Federation of India was formed in 1950. Its first World Championship was played in 1950. 
Some important terminology in Basketball :- Dribbling, Front court, Second dribble, Two count stop, Travelling or shifting, Pivoting, Held ball, Jump ball, Violation, Foul, Feinting or Dodging, Shooting, Set shot, Ring, Guard point, Dead ball, Basket Rudnick, Hook Pass, Goal, Centre line, Free throw line, Onstead, Fast break, Lay-up shot, Man to man defence, Pack, Three point, Turn over, Assist, Throw, Goal Tending, Steal, Tap etc.

Football Facts & Terminology
  • It is believed that Football is also British origin. However, it is said that a game similar to Football was played in 500 BC by the Greeks of Spart and they called this game 'Harpaston'. 
  • The first football club of the world 'Sheffield Football Club' was founded in the year 1857 in England. Football was introduced in India by the Britishers in 1848 and the first football club of India was 'Dalhousie Club'. 
  • The indian Football Association, the oldest football association in the east, was formed in 1878. 
  • The Apex institution of football is 'Federation of Internationale de Football Association' (FIFA), which was formed by sever countries on May 21, 1904. 
  • The headquarters of FIFA is in Paris (France). In order to distinguish this game from carrying cum kicking game i.i Rugby, it was given the name of "Soccer". This name was given to this game (Football) by an association named London Football Association which was formed in 1863 in England. 
  • The Football World Cup, organised by the FIFA, is the biggest competition. 
  • Football was included as a competitive game in Olympic Games officially in 1908. 
  • India took part in the world Olympic Football Competition in 1948 in London.
  • Besides Olympic competitions, World Cup Football Championship were planned by two Frenchmen i.e. m jules Rimet and Henry Delaunary. 
  • Jules Rimet was president of the French Football Federation and remained president of FIFA from 1924 to 1954. 
  • The first World Cup was organised at Monte Video (Uruguay) in 1930. 
  • The Trophy for this championship was named as "Jules Rimet Cup". This trophy became the permanent property of Brazil, as this country had won the world title third time (1958, 1962 and 1970). 
  • From 1974 (Xth Championship of Germany) onwards, the trophy was named as "The FIFA World Cup". This was a new trophy cast in 18 ct. gold. 
  • In India Indian Football Association (IFA) organised National Football Championship. 
  • The trophy awarded in thier competition is called Santosh Tropyy, which was donated in the memory of Manmath Nath Roy Chaudhary of Santosh (now a part of Bangladesh) .
  • Durand Cup tournament was first organised at Shimla and is being held in Delhi since 1940. 
  • A new chapter was added to the annals of the country's (India's) soccer with the launch of the Football Players' Association (FPA) of India in Kolkata on August 13, 2006. 
  • FIFA announced (in April 17, 2007) an assistance of $1 million to Indian football by launching 'Win in India with India' project that will initially run for a period of four year.  
  • The All India Football Federation (AIFF) has started the 'Goal Project' in Manipur and the second was launced in Delhi. 
Some Important Terminology in Football :- Abbey, Dribble, Extra time, Full back, Half back, Striker, Centre, Forward, Penalty kick, Free kick, Scissor kick, Goal kick, Direct kick, Corner kick, Referee, Tie breaker, Hat trick, Hand ball, Sweeper, Back, Throw in, Hand-ball (Fault), Touch line, Place Kick, or Kick off, Direct Free Kick, Indirect Free Kick, Tackle, Off side, Sliding Tackle, Drop Ball, Sudden death, Penalty shoot out etc.

Hockey Facts & Terminology
  • 'Blackheath Rughy and Hockey Club' is the first hockey club in the world which was set up in the year 1861 in England. 
  • London ws the first city in England to popularize this game in the 1870s.
  • In the year 1886, Hockey Association of England was formed in London. 
  • the apex institution of hockey is 'Federation Internationale de Hockey', which was established on January 7, 1924, with headquarters at Vienna (Austria), which was later shifted to Paris (France). The first International Hockey Match was played between Wales and Ireland in Rayle on June 26, 1895. 
  • Hockey was introduced in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1908 in London. 
  • Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) was formed on the 7th November, 1925 at Gwalior. 
  • Since 1944, National Hockey Championship is organised by the IHF every year. 
  • All India Women's Hockey Federation was formed in 1947. 
  • India took that part in Olympics for the first time in 1928 (in Amsterdam Olympics) .
  • In Olympics, India has won the hockey title a maximum of 8 times. The first World Cup Hockey was played in Barcelona in 1971. 
Some important Terminology in Hockey :- Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Carry, Dribble, Dodge, Goal line, Green Card, Flick, Free hit, Face of Stick, Jab Stroke, Lung Stroke, Melle, Off side, Penalty shoot out, Short Corner, Striking circle or Shooting circle, Square pass, Tackling, Through pass, Under cutting, Stick, Penalty stroke, Scoop, Side line, Tie breaker, Penalty, Under cutting, Volley, Centre forward, Roll in, Push in, Shooting, Half volley, Full back etc.

Lawn Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • The game Tennis was introduced by Major Wingfeild in Wales in 1870.  
  • All England Championship (populary known as Wimbledon Championship) started in 1877 for men only. Tennis competitions for women (in Wimbledon Championship) were introduced in 1884.
Some important terminology in Lawn Tennis :- Ace, Advantage, A let, Back hand drive, Deuce, Chip Shot, Volley, Half Volley, Let fault, Foot fault, Double Fault, Smash, Service, Grand Slam, Singles sticks, Love, Slice.

Table Tennis Facts & Terminology
  • This game was started in England in 1880s. International Table Tennis Association' was established in 1926. 
  • The first match of the Table Tennis World Championship was played in 1927. 
  • Table Tennis was introduced in the Olympic Games much later in 1988 at Seoul (S. Korea).  
  • Table Tennis Association of India was formed in 1938. 
Some important terminology in Table Tennis :- Foil, End line, Late control, Flat hit, Block stroke, Service, Penholder grip, Back spin, Centre line, Half Court, Side spin, Swing stroke, Push Stroke, Rally, Let, Reverse, Top Spin, Drop shot, Lob, Chopped return, Counter hitting etc.

Vollyball Facts & Terminology
  • Volleyball, the game played with an inflated bladder and a high net was invented in 1895 at Holyoke Y.M.C.A.Gymnasium in United States of America by a Physical Director William J. Morgan. 
  • Its first name was 'MINTONNETTE' which was later named as Volleybal by Dr. A.T. Halsted of Springfield College because the ball had to be volleyed with hands from one side to the other. 
  • 'International Volleyball Association' was formed in 1947 with its headquarter in Paris (France). 
  • The first World Volleyball Championship was held in 1949 at Prague. 
  • Thr first Asain Volleyball Championship was held at Tokyo (Japan) in 1955 (India beats Japan in the final.) 
  • The Volleyball Federation of India was formed in 1950. 

Some important terminology in Volleyball :- Antennae, Attack hit, Back zone players, Dribbling, Libero, Front Zone players, Blocking, Smash, Rotation, Boosting, Net fault, Volley Pass, Forearm pass, Service, Hook serve, Set up, Referee etc. 


South Asian Federation (SAF) Games

South Asian Games (SAF Games or SAG & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games also known as SA games) are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from South Asia.

The governing body of these games is South Asian Sports Council (SASC), formed in 1983.

The motto of SAF games is "Peace, Prosperity and Progress".

At present, SAG are joined by eight members namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

The first South Asian Games were hosted by Kathmandu, Nepal in 1983 and have since been held every two years except for some occasions.

In 2004, it was decided in the 32nd meeting of South Asian Sports Council to rename the games from South Asian Federation Games to South Asian Games as the officials believed the word Federation was diminishing the emphasis on event and acting as a barrier in attracting crowd.

These Games are often hyped as the South Asian version of Olympic Games.

List of South Asian Games :

Year Games Host City Country
1984 I Kathmandu Nepal
1985 II Dhaka Bangladesh
1987 III Calcutta India
1989 IV Islamabad Pakistan
1991 V Colombo Sri Lanka
1993 VI Dhaka Bangladesh
1995 VII Madras India
1999 VIII Kathmandu Nepal
2004 IX Islamabad Pakistan
2006 X Colombo Sri Lanka
2010 XI Dhaka Bangladesh
2012 XII Delhi India
2014 XIII Islamabad Pakistan
2016 XIV Hambantota Sri Lanka

Last updated on: 18/10/2019


Asian Games

The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.

The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation (AGF) from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games.

Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), after the breakup of the Asian Games Federation.

The Games are recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games.

In its history, nine nations have hosted the Asian Games. 46 nations have participated in the Games, including Israel, which was excluded from the Games after their last participation in 1974.

The first Asian Games began on March 4, 1951 in New Delhi.

Symbol - The Asian Games Association has choosen shining sun as its symbol.

Motto - The AGF(Asian Games Federation) adopted 'Ever Onward', given by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, as the motto of the Asian Games.

Emblem - The emblem of Asian Games is a 'bright full rising sun' with interlocking rings.

The Maharaja of Patiala presented the Torch and the flag for the first Asian Games and since then they have been carried from country to country.

Asian Indoor Games

The Asian Indoor Games is a multi-sport event held every two years among athletes representing countries from Asia.

The games are regulated by the Olympic Council of Asia. The first games were held in 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand.

In 2013 the games will be merged with the Asian Martial Arts Games and be known as the Asian Indoor-Martial Arts Games, which will henceforth be held once every four years.

Asian Beach Games

The Asian Beach Games is a multi-sport event to be held every two years among athletes representing countries from Asia.

The games are regulated by the Olympic Council of Asia. The first games was held in 2008 in Bali, Indonesia.

Asian Martial Arts Games

The Asian Martial Arts Games is a multi-sport event to be held every two years among athletes representing countries from Asia.

The games are regulated by the Olympic Council of Asia. The first and also the last games is in 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand.

In 2013 the games will be merged with the Asian Indoor Games and be known as the Asian Indoor-Martial Arts Games, which will henceforth be held once every four years.

Asian Youth Games (AYG) 

The Asian Youth Games (AYG) is an international multi-sport event held every four years to complement the current Asian Games.

The first Asian Youth Games was hosted by Singapore as a test in preparation for Youth Olympic Games (YOG).

Host of Asian Games :

Year Edition Host Dates Nations Sports
1951 I New Delhi, India March 4–11 11 6
1954 II Manila, Philippines May 1–9 19 8
1958 III Tokyo, Japan May 28 – June 1 16 13
1962 IV Jakarta, Indonesia Aug 24 – Sep 4 12 13
1966 V Bangkok, Thailand Dec 9 – 20 16 14
1970 VI Bangkok, Thailand August 24 – Sep 4 16 13
1974 VII Tehran, Iran Sep 1–16 19 16
1978 VIII Bangkok, Thailand Dec 9–20 19 19
1982 IX New Delhi, India Nov 19 – Dec 4 23 21
1986 X Seoul, South Korea Sep 20 – Oct 5 27 25
1990 XI Beijing, China Sep 22 – Oct 7 36 29
1994 XII Hiroshima, Japan Oct 2–16 42 34
1998 XIII Bangkok, Thailand Dec 6–20 41 36
2002 XIV Busan, South Korea Sep 29 – Oct 14 44 38
2006 XV Doha, Qatar Dec 1–15 45 39
2010 XVI Guangzhou, China Nov 12–27 45 42
2014 XVII Incheon, South Korea Sep 19 – Oct 4 45 36
2018 XVIII Jakarta-Palembang, Indonesia Aug 18 – Sep 2 45 40
2022 XIX Hangzhou, China Sep 10 - 25 N/A N/A
2026 XX Nagoya, Japan Sep 19 - Oct 4 N/A N/A

India at the Asian Games :

India is a member of the South Asian Zone of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), and has participated in the Asian Games since their inception in 1951.

The Indian Olympic Association, established in 1927, and recognised in the same year by the International Olympic Committee, is the National Olympic Committee for India.

India was one of the first five founding members of the Asian Games Federation on 13 February 1949, in New Delhi; the organisation was disbanded on 26 November 1981 and replaced by the Olympic Council of Asia.

New Delhi, the national capital of India, has hosted the Asian Games on two occasions: the inaugural 1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games.

Till 2018, India ranked 6th in the world and won 154 Gold, 202 Silver and 315 Bronze medals(Total : 671)

India at the 2018 Asian Games :

India competed at the 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta and Palembang, Indonesia, from 18th August to 2nd September. Neeraj Chopra was the flag bearer for the opening ceremony while Rani Rampal was named as the flag bearer for the closing ceremony.

India bettered its previous best medal haul achieved 8 years earlier at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China.

India ranked 8th in 2018 Asian Games event, and won Gold-16, Silver-23 and Bronze-31 medals. (total : 70)

2018 - First medals :

1.) India secured a bronze medal in the men's team regu event which was the country's first medal in sepak takraw since the debut of the sport in the 1990 Asian Games.

2.) India secured its first ever medal in table tennis in the Asian Games as the men's team won a Bronze medal by defeating Japan in the quarterfinal of the Table tennis at the 2018 Asian Games.

3.) In the 25 meter rapid fire pistol event, Rahi Sarnobat became the first Indian woman to clinch the gold medal in a shooting event of Asian Games.

4.) Vinesh Phogat, who won gold in the women's freestyle 50 kg category, became the first Indian woman wrestler to win a gold medal at the Games.

5.) Saina Nehwal won India's first ever medal in the women's singles event in badminton at the Asian Games when she won the bronze medal after losing the semi final.

6.) P. V. Sindhu became the first Indian shuttler to reach the final of a singles badminton event at the Games and eventually won a silver.

7.) Neeraj Chopra won the country's first javelin gold medal, setting a new national record.

8.) Indian pair of Pranab Bardhan & Shibnath Sarkar won the gold medal in the inaugural edition of Contract bridge at the 2018 Asian Games – Men's pair

9.) Vikas Krishan Yadav sets the record to become the first Indian boxer to clinch a medal in three successive Asian games.

10.) Swapna Barman won gold medal in women's Heptathlon which is India's first ever medal in this kind.

Last updated on: 16/10/2019


Commonwealth Games

The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations

The Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities.

The host city is selected from across the Commonwealth, with eighteen cities in seven countries having hosted it.

The event was first held in 1930 under the title of the British Empire Games in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

The event was renamed as the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954, the British Commonwealth Games in 1970, and gained its current title in 1978.

Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. 

Australia has been the highest achieving team for eleven games, England for seven and Canada for one.

There are currently 54 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and 71 teams participate in the Games

Games Host Dates Sports Events

British Empire Games

I Hamilton, Canada 16 – 23 Aug, 1930 6 59
II London, England 4 – 11 Aug, 1934 6 68
III Sydney, Australia 5 – 12 Feb, 1938 7 71
IV Auckland, New Zealand 4 – 11 Feb, 1950 9 88

British Empire and Commonwealth Games

V Vancouver, Canada 30 July – 7 Aug, 1954 9 91
VI Cardiff, Wales 18 – 26 July, 1958 9 94
VII Perth, Australia 22 Nov – 1 Dec, 1962 9 104
VIII Kingston, Jamaica 4 – 13 Aug, 1966 9 110

British Commonwealth Games

IX Edinburgh, Scotland 16 – 25 July, 1970 9 121
X Christchurch, New Zealand 24 Jan – 2 Feb, 1974 9 121

Commonwealth Games

XI Edmonton, Canada 3 – 12 Aug, 1978 10 128
XII Brisbane, Australia 30 Sep — 9 Oct, 1982 10 142
XIII Edinburgh, Scotland 24 July – 2 Aug, 1986 10 163
XIV Auckland, New Zealand 24 Jan – 3 Feb, 1990 10 204
XV Victoria, Canada 18 – 28 Aug, 1994 10 217
XVI Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 11 – 21 Sep, 1998 15 213
XVII Manchester, England 25 July – 4 Aug, 2002 17 281
XVIII Melbourne, Australia 15 – 26 March, 2006 16 245
XIX Delhi, India 3 – 14 Oct, 2010 17 272
XX Glasgow, Scotland 23 July – 3 Aug, 2014 17 261
XXI Gold Coast, Australia 4 - 15 April, 2018 19275
XXII Birmingham, England 27 July - 7 Aug, 2022 18264

Last updated on: 16/10/2019


Olympic Games

The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition.

The Games are currently held every two years, with Summer and Winter Olympic Games alternating, although they occur every four years within their respective seasonal games.

For the 776 BC to AD 393 Games see Ancient Olympic Games. Originally, the ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894.

The IOC has since become the governing body of the Olympic Movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter.

Story Behind " The origin of the ancient Olympic Games is lost in the midst of pre-history, but for many centuries they were only a festival of the Greek people.

The Games were fest held in honour of the Greek god, Zeus in 776 BC in the plain of the kingdom of Elis, nestled in a lush valley between the Alpheus River and Mount Kronion, 15 km from the lonian Sea.

The Olympiad celebrated that year was considered as the first and was used to date subsequent historic events. But religious ceremonies and games were held in Olympia before that time.

The oldest sanctuary of Greece was there, the alter of the Great Mother of Gods, Rhea (Earth). On the day of the feast, the priest stood in front of the altar, ready to perform a sacrifice.

Women were forbidden to be present on one stadium (about 200 yds.) As soon as a signal was given they ran and the first to arrive at the altar received the torch from the priest's hand and lit the sacrifice fire."

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth Olympic Games for teenage athletes.

Modern Olympic Games

The revival work of the Games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubertin nearly 1,500 years after the last of the ancient Games. He was born into a family of Italian origin which had settled in France.

It was on November 25, 1892, during a conference at Sorbonne about the history of physical exercises, that the first pronounced those famous six words in public "The Restoration of the Olympic Games" He said that the Games would ennoble and strengthen amateur sports to give them strength and lasting quality for an essential role in the world of modern education.

It was at the International Congress for the Study of the Propagation f the Principles of Amateurism held in Paris in June 1894 that the delegates led by Baron Pierre de Coubertin and associates unanimously voted to restore the Olympic Games and to create an International Olympic Committee to oversee them De Coubertin had planned to propose Paris for the site of the first modern Olympics in 900 but the enthusiasm and zeal of the delegates was so great that they insisted the first Games to be held in 1896 Games. Since then these Games are held every four years.

Olympic Symbol

It comprises five rings or circles, linked together to represent the sporting friendship of all people.

The rings also symbolise the continents- Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America.

Each ring is of a different colour i.e. blue, yellow, black, green and red.

The rings are meant to represent five continents viz., Africa (black), America (red), Asia (yellow), Australia (green) and Europe (Blue).

Olympic Flag

The Olympic flag, created in 1913 at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was solemnly inaugurated in Paris in June 1914 but it was raised over an Olympic stadium for the first time at the Antwerp used for the Winter Games.

These flags are made of white silk and contain above mentioned five interwined rings. From left to right the rings are blue, yellow, black, green and red.

Olympic Flame(Torch)

It was at the Amsterdam Games in 1928 that for the first time an Olympic flame was ceremonially lighted and burned in a giant torch at the entrance of the stadium.

The modern version of the flame was adopted in 1936 at the Berlin Games.

The Olympic flame symbolises the continuity between the ancient and modern games.

The torch, used to kindle the flame, is first lit by the sun's rays at Olympia, Greece, and then carried to the site of the Games by relay of runners.

Ships and planes are used when necessary. On July 15, 1976, space age technology was used to transport the flame from one continent to another.

Olympic Motto

The Olympic motto is "Citius-Altius-Fortius" (faster, higher, stronger). Rev. Father Didon (1840-1900), headmaster of a school near Paris and a great promoter of sports in the French Catholic colleges first used the motto and had it embroidered on the pennants of his school clubs.

This succinct definition of the philosophy of sport appealed to father Didon's friend, Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was responsible for the revival of the Olympic Games nearly 1,500 years after the last of the ancient Games.

It was adopted at his suggestion at the International congress for the "Study and Propagation of the Principles of Amateurism" on June 23, 1894, the same day on which the restoration of the Olympic Games and the creation of the International Olympic Committee were also decided.

Olympic Prizes, Medals and Certificates 

While in ancient times the Olympic heroes received a crown of olive branches for their exploits, modern Olympics Champions are rewarded with medals and certificates.

The winning athlete now receives a Gold medal, the athlete in the second place is awarded a silver medal and the third placed athlete in the second place is awarded a Silver medal and the third placed athlete wins a Bronze medal.

In addition, all athletes ranking from first to sixth receive a certificate. Each medal is 60 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. The first and second place medals are made of 92.5 percent silver and the medals for the first winner is then plated with 6 gram of fine gold. Thus this medal is not full gold. The third place medal is of bronze.

Olympic Mascot

It was introduced in 1972 at the 20th Olympics Games held at Munich and since then an Olympic Mascot is selected for a particular year and venue.

Olympic Order 

Instituted in 1974, the Olympic Order in a gold, silver or bronze decoration, awarded to a person who has rendered outstanding services or displayed the Olympic ideals.

Mrs Indira Gandhi was awarded this Order in 1983 by the IOC for her contribution to the organisation of the New Delhi Asiad (1982.)

Introduction of Events in the Olympics
Events Year
Archery 1900 at Paris (but not held from 1924-1968)
Athletics 1896 at Athens
Badminton 1992 at Barcelona
Basketball 1904 and 1928 - a demostration event
1936 at Berlin as a medal event
Boxing 1904 at St Louis
Canoeing 1936 at Berlin (for men)
1948 at London (for women)
Cycling 1896 at Athens (but not held in 1904)
Equestrian 1900 at Paris (but not held in 1904 and 1908)
Fencing 1896 at Athens (for men)
1924 at Paris (for women)
Football 1900 at Paris (but not held in 1932)
Gymnastics 1896 at Athens
Handball 1936 at Berlin as outdoor handball
1952 at Helsinki as demostration games
1972 at Munich as a medal event
Hockey 1908 at London (but not held in 1912 and 1924) for men
1980 at Moscow for women
Judo 1964 at Tokyo (but not held in 1968)
Modern Pentathlon 1912 at Stockholm as individual competition
1952 at Helsinki as team event
Rowing 1896 at Athens
1976 at Montreal for women
Shooting 1896 at Athens (but not held in 1904 and 1928)
Swimming 1896 at Athens for men
1908 at London, diving for men
1912 at Stockholm, swimming and diving for women
1900 at Paris (waterpolo)
Tennis 1924 at Paris (but not held later)
1988 at Seoul (returned as medal event)
Table Tennis 1988 at Seoul
Vollyball 1964 at Tokyo for men and women
Weightlifting 1896 at Athens
Wrestling 1896 at Athens (Greco-Roman)
1904 at St Louis (Free style)
Yachting 1900 at Paris

Medal Name Games Sport Event
2 Silver Norman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men's 200 metres
2 Silver Norman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men's 200 metre hurdles
1 Gold National team 1928 Amsterdam Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1932 Los Angeles Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1936 Berlin Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1948 London Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1952 Helsinki Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav 1952 Helsinki Wrestling Men's freestyle bantamweight
1 Gold National team 1956 Melbourne Field hockey Men's competition
2 Silver National team 1960 Rome Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1964 Tokyo Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze National team 1968 Mexico Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze National team 1972 Munich Field hockey Men's competition
1 Gold National team 1980 Moscow Field hockey Men's competition
3 Bronze Leander Paes 1996 Atlanta Tennis Men's singles
3 Bronze Karnam Malleswari 2000 Sydney Weightlifting Women's 69 kg
2 Silver Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore 2004 Athens Shooting Men's double trap
1 Gold Abhinav Bindra 2008 Beijing Shooting Men's 10m Air Rifle
3 Bronze Sushil Kumar 2008 Beijing Wrestling Men's 66 kg Freestyle
3 Bronze Vijender Kumar 2008 Beijing Boxing Men's 75 kg

* IOC regards these medals as credited to India; however, International committees credit these medals to Great Britain.

Olympic Games host cities
Year Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games Youth Olympic Games
Olympiad Host city No. Host city No. Host City
1896 I Athens, Greece

1900 II Paris, France

1904 III St. Louis, United States

1906 III Athens, Greece

1908 IV London, United Kingdom

1912 V Stockholm, Sweden

1916 VI Berlin, Germany
Cancelled because of World War I

1920 VII Antwerp, Belgium

1924 VIII Paris, France I Chamonix, France

1928 IX Amsterdam, Netherlands II St. Moritz, Switzerland

1932 X Los Angeles, United States III Lake Placid, United States

1936 XI Berlin, Germany IV Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

1940 XII Tokyo, Japan →
Helsinki, Finland →
Cancelled because of World War II
V Sapporo, Japan →
St. Moritz, Switzerland →
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany →
Cancelled because of World War II

1944 XIII London, United Kingdom →
Cancelled because of World War II
V Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy →
Cancelled because of World War II

1948 XIV London, United Kingdom V St. Moritz, Switzerland

1952 XV Helsinki, Finland VI Oslo, Norway

1956 XVI Melbourne, Australia +
Stockholm, Sweden
VII Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy

1960 XVII Rome, Italy VIII Squaw Valley, United States

1964 XVIII Tokyo, Japan IX Innsbruck, Austria

1968 XIX Mexico City, Mexico X Grenoble, France

1972 XX Munich, West Germany XI Sapporo, Japan

1976 XXI Montreal, Canada XII Denver, United States
Innsbruck, Austria

1980 XXII Moscow, Soviet Union XIII Lake Placid, United States

1984 XXIII Los Angeles, United States XIV Sarajevo, Yugoslavia

1988 XXIV Seoul, South Korea XV Calgary, Canada

1992 XXV Barcelona, Spain XVI Albertville, France


XVII Lillehammer, Norway

1996 XXVI Atlanta, United States


XVIII Nagano, Japan

2000 XXVII Sydney, Australia


XIX Salt Lake City, United States

2004 XXVIII Athens, Greece


XX Turin, Italy

2008 XXIX Beijing, China


XXI Vancouver, Canada I (Summer)  Singapore
2012 XXX London, United Kingdom

I (Winter) Innsbruck, Austria

XXII Sochi, Russia II (Summer) Nanjing, China
2016 XXXI Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

II (Winter) To be determined

XXIII Pyeongchang, South Korea III (Summer) To be determined
2020 XXXII To be determined

III (Winter) To be determined

XXIV To be determined IV (Summer) To be determined

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) was established on June 23, 1894 in order to organize the Olympic Games.

This organization continues to be the ruling body of the Olympics.

List of the past and present presidents of the IOC:
2001-2013 Count Jacques Rogge (Belgium)
1980-2001 Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spain)
1972-1980 Michael Morris (Ireland)
1952-1972 Avery Brundage (United States)
1946-1952 J. Sigfrid Edström (Sweden)
1925-1942 Henri de Baillet-Latour (Belgium)
1896-1925 Pierre de Coubertin (France)
1894-1896 Dimitrios Vikelas (Greece)


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